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The Foraminifera 

An Introduction to the Study of 
the Protozoa 



A.L.S., F.R.M.S. 

This book has been written with a view of 
meeting a demand which has arisen for a con- 
cise account of the Foraminifera, suited to the 
requirements of the student of Natural History 
and Palaeontology. 

With 14 plates and 42 illustrations in the Text. 
DEMY 8vo. CLOTH, 10s. 6d. 




Keystone Printing Co., 

552-4 Lonsdale St., 




1 ; .'•-..:..,■ -v. v.. . inM %■'"■;' ~ v^r, , ; - ' ; 

: - . m 






(Helicocrinus plumosus), about 5/6 nat. size, 
in Silurian Mudstone, Brunswick, Victoria. 

{Spec, in Nat. Mus., Melbourne). 

Australasian Fossils 

A Students' Manual of Palaeontology 


Palaeontologist to the National Museum, Melbourne. 

Formerly Assistant in the Geological Department of the Royal 
College of Science, London. 

Assoc. Linnean Soc. [Lond.], F.R.M.S., etc. 

Author of "The Foraminifera," "A Monograph of the 
Silurian Bivalved Mollusca of Victoria," " New or Little- 
known Victorian Fossils in the National Museum," etc. 

With an Introduction by 

JLijr JLC> 



Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Brisbane and London. 








this work is dedicated as a 
slight tribute of esteem, and 
in grateful acknowledgement 
of kindly help and encourage- 
ment through many years. 



Preface 10 

Introduction by Professor E. W. Skeats, D.Sc, F.G.S. . 13 


Chap I. — Nature and uses of Fossils 21 

„ II. — Classification of Fossil Animals and Plants . 34 
„ III. — The Geological Epochs and Time-range of 

Fossils 41 

„ IV. — How Fossils are Found, and the Rocks They 

Form 51 


Chap. V.— Fossil Plants 82 

VI. — Fossil Foraminifera and Radiolaria .... 95 

VII. — Fossil Sponges, Corals and Graptolites . . . . 107 

VIII. — Fossil Star-fishes, Sea-lilies and Sea-urchins 133 

IX. — Fossil Worms, Sea-mats and Lamp-shells . . 152 

X.— Fossil Shell-fish 174 

XI. — Fossil Trilobites, Crustacea and Insects . . 220 
XII. — Fossil Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds 

and Mammals . . 257 

Appendix. — Notes on Collecting and Preserving Fossils 315 
Index 321 



1. Fossil Shells in clay 22 

2. Tracks, probably of Crustaceans 22 

3. Structure of Silicified Wood in tangential section: 

Araucarioxylon Daintreei, Chapm 24 

4. Portrait of William Smith 26 

5. Raised Beach : Brighton, England 28 

6. Raised Beach : Torquay, Victoria 28 

7. Marine Fossils in Volcanic Tuff: Summit of Snow- 

don 29 

8. Kitchen Middens: Torquay, Victoria 30 

9. Submerged Forest on the Cheshire Coast . . . . 30 

10. Pecten murrayanus, Tate. A fossil shell allied to 

a living species 32 

11. Cliff section : -Torquay, Victoria 42 

12. Diagram of superposition of Strata 42 

13. Diagram of the Range-in-time of Australasian 

Fossils 50 

14. Diprotodon skeletons in situ: Lake Callabonna, S. 

Australia 51 

15. Bird remains on sand dunes: King Island, Bass 

Strait 52 

16. Impression of Bird's feather in Ironstone: Western 

Victoria 52 

17. A Fossil Turtle: Notochelone costata, Owen sp. .. 52 

18. A Ganoid Fish: Pristisomus crassus, A. S. Wood- 

ward 54 

19. A fossil Insect in amber (Tipula sp.) 54 

20. A fossil Crustacean : Thalassina emerii, Bell .... 55 

21. An Ammonite: Desmoceras flindersi, McCoy sp. .. 55 

22. Belemnites: Belemnites diptycha, McCoy 56 

23. A Group of Lamp-shells: Magellania flavescens, 

Lam. sp 56 

24. Zoarium of a living Polyzoan: Retepora sp 58 

25. A fossil Polyzoan: Macropora clarkei, T. Woods sp. 58 

26. Fossil Worm-tubes : (?) Serpula 60 

27. A living Sea-urchin: Strongylocentrotus erythro- 

grammus, Val 60 

28. A fossil Sea-urchin: Linthia antiaustralis, Tate 60 

29. A fossil Brittle-Star: Ophioderma egertoni, Brod. 

sp 60 

30. A fossil Crinoid : Taxocrinus simplex, Phillips sp. 62 

31. Graptolites on Slate: Tetragraptus fruticcsus, J. 

Hall sp 62 




32. A Stromatoporoid : Actinostroma 63 

33. Corals in Devonian Marble: Favosites 64 

34. Siliceous Skeleton of a living Sponge: (l)Chone- 

lasma 64 

35. Spicules of a fossil Sponge: Ecionema newberyi, 

McCoy sp. . 65 

36. Nummulites : N. gizehensis, Ehr. var. champol- 

lioni, De la Harpe 65 

37. Cainozoic Radiolaria 66 

38. Radiolaria in Siliceous Limestone 67 

39. Travertin Limestone, with leaves of Beech (Fa- 

gus) 67 

40. Freshwater Limestone with shells {Bulinus) . . 68 

41. Hardened mudstone with Brachiopods (Orthis, 

etc. ) 69 

42. Diatomaceous Earth 72 

43. Lepidocyclina Limestone 73 

44. Coral in Limestone: Favosites grandipora, Eth. fil. 74 

45. Crinoidal Limestone 74 

46. Turritella Limestone 75 

47. Ostracodal Limestone 75 

48. Halimeda Limestone 77 

49. Tasmanite : a Spore Coal 77 

50. Kerosene Shale 77 

51. Bone Bed 77 

52. Bone Breccia 79 

53. Cainozoic Ironstone with Leaves (Banlcsia) .... 80 

54. Girvanella confer t a, Chapm., in Silurian Limestone 83 

55. Palaeozoic Plants ".'. 83 

56. Restoration of Lepidodendron 84 

57. Stem of Lepidodendron (Lepidophloios) , showing 

leaf -scars 84 

58. Upper Palaeozoic Plants 85 

59. Map of Gondwanaland 87 

60. Mesozoic Plants 88 

61. Cainozoic Plants 90 

62. Eucalyptus leaves from the Deep Leads 92 

63. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Foraminifera 97 

64. Lepidocyclina marginata, Mich. sp. Sections of 

shell showing structure 99 

65. Cainozoic Foraminifera 100 

66. Fossil Radiolaria 103 

67. Palaeozoic Sponges and Archaeocyathinae . . . . 108 

68. Cainozoic Sponges , . . Ill 

69. Silurian Corals Ill 

70. Upper Palaeozoic Corals 116 

71. Cainozoic Corals 118 

72. Stromatoporoidea and Cladophora 121 


Fig. Page 

73. Leaver Ordovician Graptolites 125 

74. Lower Ordovician Graptolites . . 125 

75. Upper Ordovician and Silurian Graptolites . . . . 127 

76. Fossil Crinoids 135 

77. Fossil Starfishes 140 

78. Protaster brisingoides, Gregory, in Silurian Sand- 

stone 142 

79. Gregoriura spryi, Chapm., in Silurian Mudstone . . 143 

80. Cainozoic Sea-urchins 145 

81. Cainozoic Sea-urchins 147 

82. Fossil Worms 153 

83. Palaeozoic Polyzoa 156 

84. Cainozoic Polyzoa . 157 

85. Lower Palaeozoic Brachiopods 159 

86. Silurian and Devonian Brachiopods 161 

87. Carbopermian Brachiopods . 163 

88. Mesozoic Brachiopods 165 

89. Cainozoic Brachiopods 167 

90. Lower Palaeozoic Bivalves 176 

91. Palaeozoic Bivalves 179 

92. Carbopermian Bivalves 180 

93. Lower Mesozoic Bivalves .. 181 

94. Cretaceous Bivalves 183 

95. Cainozoic Bivalves 185 

96. Cainozoic Bivalves 186 

97. Fossil Scaphopods and Chitons 188 

98. Lower Palaeozoic Gasteropoda 192 

99. Silurian Gasteropoda 194 

100. Upper Palaeozoic Gasteropoda 195 

101. Mesozoic Gasteropoda 197 

102. Cainozoic Gasteropoda 199 

103. Cainozoic Gasteropoda 200 

104. Late Cainozoic and Pleistocene Gasteropoda . . . . 201 

105. Palaeozoic Cephalopoda 206 

106. Mesozoic and Cainozoic Cephalopoda 208 

107. Diagram restoration of an Australian Trilobite 

(Dalmanites) 224 

108. Cambrian Trilobites 226 

109. Older Silurian Trilobites 228 

110. Newer Silurian Trilobites . . 230 

111. Carboniferous Trilobites and a Phvllopod . . . . 232 

112. Silurian Ostracoda * 236 

113. Upper Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ostracoda 238 

114. Cainozoic Ostracoda . . . . 239 

115. Fossil Cirripedes 242 

116. Cirripedes. Lepas anatifera, Linn.: living goose 

barnacle, and L. pritchardi, Hall : Cainozoic . . 242 

117. Ceraiiocaris papilio, Salter 244 

118. Ordovician Phyllocarids 245 


Fig. Pago 

119. Silurian Phyllocarids 245 

120. Fossil Crabs and Insects 247 

121. Silurian Eurypterids 249 

122. Thyestes magnificus, Chapm 259 

123. (Jyracanthides murrayi, A. S. Woodw. Restoration 260 

124. Teeth and Scales of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic 

Fishes 260 

125. Cleithrolepis granulatus, Fgerton . 263 

126. Tooth of Ceratodus avus, A. S. W., and phalangeal 

of a carnivorous Deinosaur 264 

127. Scale of Ceratodus ? avus 265 

128. The Queensland Lung-fish: Keoceratodus forsteri, 

Krefft 266 

129. Lcptolepis gregarius, A. S. W 266 

130. Cretaceous and Cainozoic Fish-teeth 268 

131. Cainozoic Fish remains 270 

132. Bothriceps major, A. S.W 273 

133. Ichthyosaurus australis, McCoy 277 

134. Fossil Reptiles 278 

135. Impression of Bird's feather, magnified, Cainozoic: 

Victoria 281 

136. Gnemiornis calcitrans, Owen 284 

137., Dinornis maocimus, Owen. Great Moa 284 

138. Pachyornis elephant opus, Owen 285 

139. Skeleton of Sarcophilus ursinus, Harris sp 288 

140. Skull of fossil specimen of Sarcophilus ursinus . . 288 

141. Thylacinus major, Owen. Hind part of mandible 289 

142. Phascolomys pliocenus, McCoy. Mandible . . . . 290 

143. Cainozoic Teeth and Otolith 291 

144. Skeleton of Diprotodon australis, Owen 291 

145. Right hind foot of Diprotodon australis 292 

146. Restoration of Diprotodon australis 292 

147. Skull and mandible of Thylacoleo carnifex, Owen . 293 

148. Wynyardia oassiana, Spencer 294 

149. Tooth of Scaldicetus macgeei, Chapm 297 

150. Impressions of foot-prints in dune sand-rock, 

Warrnambool 301 

Map of Australia, showing chief fossiliferous 


THE more important discoveries of fossils m the 
southern hemisphere have received, as a 
rule, very meagre notice in many of the text- 
books of Geology and Palaeontology published in 
England, Germany and America, and used by Austra- 
lasian students. It is thought, therefore, that the 
time has arrived when an attempt should be made to 
collect the main facts bearing upon this subject, in 
order to present them from an Australasian stand- 
point. With this in view, references to fossils occur- 
ring in the northern hemisphere are subordinated, 
peeing that these may be easily obtained on reference 
to the accepted text-books in general use. 

The present work does not presume to furnish a 
complete record of Australasian palaeontology, since 
that would mean the production of a much more 
extensive and costly volume. Sufficient information 
is here given, however, to form a groundwork for the 
student of this section of natural science, and a guide 
to the collector of these "medals of creation." 

The systematic portion of this book has been 
arranged primarily from the biological side, since 
Palaeontology is the "study of ancient life." Tak- 
ing each life-group, therefore, from the lowest to the 
highest types, all the divisions represented by fossils 
are dealt with in turn, beginning with their occur- 
rence in the oldest rocks and ending with those in the 
newest strata. 

If a commendation of the study of fossils, apart 
from its scientific utility, were needed, it could be 



pointed out that palaeontology as a branch of geo- 
logy is, par excellence, an open-air study: and since 
it requires as handmaids all the sister sciences, is a 
subject of far-reaching interest. Microscopy and 
photography are of immense value in certain 
branches of fossil research, the former in the examina- 
tion of the minute forms of mollusca, foraminifera 
and ostracoda, the latter in the exact portraiture of 
specimens too intricate to copy with the brush, or 
too evanescent to long retain, when out of their 
matrix, their clean fresh surfaces. With geology or 
palaeontology as an objective, a country walk may be 
a source of much enjoyment to its students, for "in 
their hand is Nature like an open book"; and the 
specimens collected on a summer excursion may be 
closely and profitably studied in the spare time of 
the winter recess. 

The author sincerely trusts that students may 
share the same pleasure which he has derived from 
the study of these relics of past life; and that 
the present attempt to show their relationship both 
in geological time and biological organisation, may 
be the means of inducing many to make further 
advances in this fascinating subject. 

In the production of this work several friends 
and collaborators have materially assisted, their 
aid considerably increasing its value. It is therefore 
with grateful thanks that the author acknowledges 
the help and encouragement given by Professor E. 
W. Skeats, D.Sc, who has not only been good enough 
to write the Introductory passages, but who has 
carefully gone over the MS. and made many helpful 


suggestions. Mr. W. S. Dun, F.G.S., Palaeontolo- 
gist to the Geological Survey Branch of the Depart- 
ment of Mines, Sydney, has also rendered generous 
help in giving the benefit of his full acquaintance of 
the palaeontology of his own State. To the 
Trustees of the National Museum the author 
is under special obligations for permission to 
photograph many unique fossil specimens in 
the Museum collection, comprising Figs. 3, 16-18, 
20-22, 28-31, 35, 39, 40, 45, 46, 51-54, 57, 62, 
78, 79, 127, 133, 136, 147 and 148. The author's 
thanks are also due to Dr. E. C. Stirling, M.D., M.A., 
F.R.S., for permission to use Figs. 143, 144 and 145, 
whilst similar privileges have been accorded by Prof. 
A. C. Seward, F.R.S., Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S., and 
Mr. C. L. Barrett. Prof. T. W. Edgeworth David, 
F.R.S., has kindly cleared up some doubtful points 
of stratigraphy and further increased the author's 
indebtedness by the loan of a unique slide of 
Radiolaria figured on p. 69. Mr. Eastwood Moore, 
to whom special thanks are due, has greatly added 
to the pictorial side of this work by his skilful help 
in preparing many of the illustrations for the press, 
as well as in the drawing of the several maps. The 
grouped sets of fossils have been especially drawn 
for this work by the author. They are either copied 
from authentic specimens or from previously pub- 
lished drawings; references to the authorities being 
given in the accompanying legends. Dr. T. S. Hall 
has kindly read the section on Graptolites and Mam- 
malia. For many helpful suggestions and the care- 
ful reading of proofs, thanks are especially owing 
to Mr. W. E. G. Simons, Mr. R. A. Keble, and to 
mv wife. 


Geological Department, 

The University, Melbourne. 

WILLIAM SMITH, the Father of English Geo- 
logy, used to apologize for the study of 
palaeontology by claiming that "the search 
for a fossil is at least as rational a proceeding as the 
pursuit of a hare." Those of us who are accustomed 
to take the field, armed with a hammer, in the search 
for "medals of creation" and from time to time have 
experienced the sporting enjoyment of bringing to 
light a rare or perfect specimen are quite prepared to 
support his claim. But the student of fossils needs 
the help of a text book to guide him to the literature 
on the subject, to help him with his identifications 
or to indicate that some of his finds are new and 
hitherto undescribed. European and American 
workers have long been provided with excellent books 
treating generally of fossils, but the illustrations 
have been quite naturally taken mainly from forms 
occurring in the Northern Hemisphere. Our own 
fossil forms both plants and animals are numerous, 
interesting and in many cases peculiar, but the litera- 
ture concerning them is so widely scattered in various 


scientific publications that a warm welcome should 
be given to this book of Mr. Chapman's, in which 
the Australian evidence is brought together and sum- 
marised by one, whose training, long experience, and 
personal research qualify him to undertake the task. 
Especially will teachers and students of Geology and 
Palaeontology value such an undertaking. Workers 
in other countries who have only partial access to 
the Australian literature on the subject should also 
find this a valuable book of reference. 

In the study of fossils we are concerned with the 
nature, evolution and distribution of the former in- 
habitants of the earth. The study of Palaeontology 
may be justified as a means of scientific discipline, 
for the contributions the subject makes to the in- 
crease of natural knowledge and the unfolding of 
panoramas of ancient life. It also provides perhaps 
the most positive evidence in the story of evolution. 
So, too, the student of the present day distribution 
of animals and plants finds the key to many a prob- 
lem in zoo-geography in the records of past migra- 
tions yielded by the study of fossils in different lands. 
The stratigraphical geologist is of course principally 
concerned with two important aspects of the study of 

The masterly generalisation of William Smith that 
strata can be identified by their fossil contents es- 
tablished by close study of the rocks and fossils of 
the British Oolites has been confirmed generally by 
subsequent work. The comparative study of the fos- 
sil contents of rocks in widely separated areas has 
proved to be the most valuable means by which the 


correlation of the rocks can be effected and their 
identity of age established. In some eases the re- 
cognition of a single fossil species in two areas separ- 
ated, perhaps, by thousands of miles may suffice to 
demonstrate that the rocks are of the same age. For 
example, a graptolite such as Phyllograptus typus 
is found in many parts of the world, but has only a 
very restricted range in time. It has been found 
only in rocks of Lower Ordovician age. Its occur- 
rence in Wales and in the rocks of Bendigo practi- 
cally suffices to establish the identity in age of the 
rocks in these widely separated areas. 

Generally, however, much closer study and a more 
detailed examination of a large number of the fos- 
sils of a rock series are required before the age of 
the rocks can be surely established and a safe correla- 
tion made with distant localities. 

The stratigraphical generalisations to be made 
from the study of fossils however must be qualified 
by certain considerations. Among these are the fact 
that our knowledge of the life forms of a given geo- 
logical period is necessarily incomplete, that the dif- 
ferences in the fossil contents of rocks may depend 
not only on differences of age but also in the condi- 
tions under which the organisms lived and the rocks 
were accumulated, and that forms of life originating 
in one area do not spread themselves immediately 
over the earth but migrate at velocities depending on 
their mode of life and the presence or absence of 
Carriers to their progress. 

Our incomplete knowledge of the forms living in 
remote geological periods arises partly from the fact 


that some forms had no permanent skeleton and were 
therefore incapable of preservation, partly to the 
obliteration of the skeletons of organisms through 
subsequent earth movements in the rocks or through 
the solvent action of water. Many land forms, too, 
probably disintegrated on the surface before deposits 
were formed over the area. Apart from these causes 
which determine that a full knowledge of the fossils 
from ancient rocks in particular, will never be 
acquired, our knowledge is incomplete by reason 
either of difficulty of access to certain areas or incom- 
plete search. As a result of later discoveries earlier 
conclusions based on incomplete evidence as to the 
age of a rock series, have not infrequently been 

The study of the present distribution of animals 
and plants over the earth is a help in the attempt to 
decide how far the fossil differences in the sets of 
rocks are due to differences in the ages of the rocks 
or to differences in the conditions under which the 
organisms lived. The present, in this, as in many 
other geological problems, is the key to the past. 

We know, for instance, that differences of climate 
largely control the geographical distribution of land 
animals and especially of land plants, and for that 
reason among others, fossil plants are generally less 
trustworthy guides to geological age than fossil ani- 

In the distribution of marine animals at the pre- 
sent day we find that organisms of simple structure 
are generally more widespread and less susceptible 
to changes in their environment than are the more 
complex organisms with specialised structures. 
Hence we find, for instance, a fossil species of the 


Foraminifera may persist unchanged through several 
geological periods, while a species of fossil fish has 
in general not only a short range in time but often 
a restricted geographical extent. If we consider the 
marine organisms found at the present day we find a 
number of free-swimming forms very widely distri- 
buted, while a large number are restricted either by 
reason of climate or of depth. Certain organisms are 
only to be found between high and low tide levels, 
others between low tide level and a depth of thirty 
fathoms, while many quite different forms live in 
deeper waters. If we confine our attention 
to shallow-water marine forms we note that 
certain forms are at the present day res- 
tricted to waters of a certain temperature. 
We find, therefore, a contrast between arctic 
and tropical faunas, while other types characterize 
temperate latitudes. Climatic and bathymetrical dif- 
ferences at the present day therefore lead to distinct 
differences in the distribution of certain organisms, 
while other forms, less sensitive to these factors, 
range widely and may be almost universally distri- 
buted. Similar conditions obtained in past geo- 
logical times, and therefore in attempting to cor- 
relate the rocks of one area with those of another 
those fossils which are most wide-spread are often 
found to be the most valuable. 

Attention should also be paid to the conditions 
under which the deposits accumulated, since it is 
clear that rocks may be formed at the same time in 
different areas and yet contain many distinct fossils 
by reason of climatic or bathymetrical differences. 
Among living marine organisms we find certain forms 
restricted to sandy or muddy sea-bottoms and others 


to clear water, and these changes in the conditions of 
deposition of sediment have played their part in past 
geological periods in determining differences in the 
fossil faunas of rocks which were laid down simul- 
taneously. We not infrequently find mudstones pass- 
ing laterally into limestones, and this lithological 
change is always accompanied by a more or less not- 
able change in the fossil contents of the two rock 
types. Such facts emphasize the close connection 
between stratigraphy and palaeontology, and indi- 
cate that the successful tracing out of the geological 
history of any area is only possible when the evi- 
dence of the stratigrapher is reinforced by that pro- 
vided by the palaeontologist. The fact that species 
of animals and plants which have been developed in 
a particular area do not spread all over the world 
at once but migrate very slowly led Huxley many 
years ago to put forward his hypothesis of " homo- 
taxis.' ' He agreed that when the order of succession 
of rocks and fossils has been made out in one area, 
this order and succession will be found to be gener- 
ally similar in other areas. The deposits in two 
such contrasted areas are homotaxial, that is, show a 
similarity of order, but, he claimed, are not neces- 
sarily synchronous in their formation. In whatever 
parts of the world Carboniferous, Devonian and Si- 
lurian fossils may be found, the rocks with Carboni- 
ferous fossils will be found to overlie those with 
Devonian, and these in their turn rest upon those 
containing Silurian fossils. And yet Huxley main- 
tained that if, say, Africa was the area in which 
faunas and floras originated, the migration of a 
Silurian fauna and flora might take place so slowly 


that by the time it reached Britain the succeeding 
Devonian forms had developed in Africa, and when 
it reached North America, Devonian forms had 
reached Britain and Carboniferous forms had de- 
veloped in Africa. If this were so a Devonian fauna 
and flora in Britain may have been contemporaneous 
with Silurian life in North America and with a Car- 
boniferous fauna and flora in Africa. 

This could only be true if the time taken for the 
migration of faunas and floras was so great as to 
transcend the boundaries between great geological 
periods. This does not appear to be the case, and 
Huxley's idea in its extreme form has been gener- 
ally abandoned. At the same time certain anomalies 
in the range in time of individual genera have been 
noted, and may possiby be explained on such lines. 
For instance, among the group of the graptolites, in 
Britain the genus Bryograptus occurs only in the 
Upper Cambrian and the genus Leptograptus only 
in the Upper Ordovician rocks. In Victoria these 
two genera, together with typical Lower Ordovician 
forms, may be found near Lancefield preserved on 
a single slab of shale. In the same way, in a single 
quarry in Triassic rocks in New South Wales, a 
number of fossil fish have been found and described, 
some of which have been compared to Jurassic, others 
to Permian, and others to Carboniferous forms in the 
Northern Hemisphere. 

Another point which the palaeontologist may occa- 
sionally find evidence for is the existence of "bio- 
logical asylums/' areas which by means of land or 
other barriers may be for a long period separated 
from the main stream of evolution. We know that 


the present fauna and flora of Australia is largely 
of archaic aspect, as it includes a number of types 
which elsewhere have long ago become extinct or 
were never developed. This appears to be due to the 
long isolation of Australia and, as Professor Gregory 
happily puts it — its "development in a biological 
backwater. " We have some evidence that simi- 
lar asylums have existed in past geological periods, 
with the result that in certain areas where uniform 
conditions prevailed for a long time or where isola- 
tion from competition prevented rapid evolution, 
some organisms which became extinct in other areas, 
persisted unchanged in the " asylum' ' into a younger 
geological period. 

The broad generalizations that rocks may be iden- 
tified by their fossil contents and that the testimony 
of the rocks demonstrates the general order of evolu- 
tion from simple to complex forms, have only been 
placed on a surer footing by long continued investi- 
gations. The modifications produced by conditions 
of deposit, of climate and of natural barriers to mi- 
gration, while introducing complexities into the prob- 
lems of Palaeontology, are every year becoming bet- 
ter known; and when considered in connection with 
the variations in the characters of the rocks, provide 
valuable and interesting evidence towards the solu- 
tion of the ultimate problems of geology and palaeon- 
tology, which include the tracing out of the evolution 
of the history of the earth from the most remote 
geological period to that point at which the geologist 
hands over his story to the archaeologist, the 
historian, and the geographer. 




Scope of Geology. — 

THE science of GEOLOGY, of which PALAEON- 
TOLOGY or the study of fossils, forms a 
part, is concerned with the nature and struc- 
ture of the earth, the physical forces that have shaped 
it, and the organic agencies that have helped to 
build it. 

Nature of Fossils. — 

The remains of animals and plants that formerly 
existed in the different periods of the his- 
tory of the earth are spoken of as fossils. They 
are found, more or less plentifully, in such common 
rocks as clays, shales, sandstones, and limestones, all 
of which are comprised in the great series of Sedi- 
mentary Rocks (Fig. 1). 

According to the surroundings of the organisms, 
whether they existed on land, in rivers, lakes, estu- 
aries, or the sea, they are spoken of as belonging to 
terrestrial, fluviatile, lacustrine, estuarine, or marine 


Fig. 1 .—Fossil Shells Embedded in Sandy Clay. 

About % nat. size. Of Cainozoic or Tertiary Age (Kalimnan Series). 
Grange Burn, near Hamilton, Victoria. {F.C. Coll.) 

(G = Glycimeris. I, = Iyimopsis. N = Natica). 

Fig. 2— Tracks probably of Crustaceans (Phyllocarids). 

About Va nat. size. Impression of a Slab of Upper Ordovician 
Shale. Diggers' Rest, Victoria. {F.C. Coll.) 



The name fossil, from the Latin 'fodere' to dig, — 
'fossilis,' dug out, — is applied to the remains of any 
animals or plants which have been buried either in 
sediments laid down in water, in materials gathered 
together by the wind on land as sand-dunes, in beds of 
volcanic ash, or in cave earths. But not only remains 
of organisms are thus called fossils, for the name is 
also applied to structures only indirectly connected 
with once living objects, such as rain-prints, ripple- 
marks, sun-cracks, and tracks or impressions of 
worms and insects (Fig. 2). 

Preservation of Fossils. — 

In ordinary terms, fossils are the durable parts of 
animals and plants which have resisted complete de- 
cay by being covered over with the deposits above- 
named. It is due, then, to the fact that they have 
been kept from the action of the air, with its destruc- 
tive bacteria, that we are able to still find these relics 
of life in the past. 

Petrifaction of Fossils. — 

When organisms are covered by a tenacious mud, 
they sometimes undergo no further change. Very 
often, however, moisture containing mineral matter 
such as carbonate of lime or silica, percolates through 
the stratum which contains the fossils, and then they 
not only have their pores filled with the mineral, but 
their actual substance may also undergo a molecular 
change, whereby the original composition of the shell 
or the hard part is entirely altered. This tends 
almost invariably to harden the fossils still further, 
which change of condition is called petrifaction, or 
the making into stone. 



Pig. 3. 
Thin Slice of Petrified or Silicified Wood in Tangential Section. 

Araucarioxylon Daintreei, Chapm. — Dadoxylon australe, Arber ; 
X 28. Carbopermian : Newcastle, New South Wales. 

{Nat. Mus. Coll.) 

Structure Preserved. — 

Petrifaction does not necessarily destroy the struc- 
ture of a fossil. For example, a piece of wood, which 
originally consisted of carbon, hydrogen, and nitro- 
gen, may be entirely replaced by flint or silica : and 
yet the original structure of the wood may be so 
perfectly preserved that when a thin slice of the 
petrifaction is examined under a high power of the 
microscope, the tissues with their component cells 
are seen and easily recognised (Fig. 3). 

Early Observers. — 

Remains of animals buried in the rocks were known 
from the earliest times, and frequent references to 
these were made by the ancient Greek and Roman 
Xenophanes. — • 

Xenophanes, who lived B.C. 535, wrote of shells, 


fishes and seals which had become dried in mud, and 
were found inland and on the tops of the highest 
mountains. The presence of these buried shells and 
bones was ascribed by the ancients to a plastic force 
latent in the earth itself, while in some cases they 
were regarded as freaks of nature. 

Leonardo da Vinci. — 

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Italian 
observers came to the fore in clearly demonstrating 
the true nature of fossils. This was no doubt due 
in part to the fact that the Italian coast affords a 
rich field of observation in this particular branch of 
science. The celebrated painter Leonardo da Vinci 
(early part of the sixteenth century), who carried out 
some engineering works in connection with canals 
in the north of Italy, showed that the mud brought 
down by rivers had penetrated into the interior of 
shells at a time when they were still at the bottom 
of the sea near the coast. 

Steno. — ■ 

In 1669, Steno, a Danish physician residing in 
Italy, wrote a work on organic petrifactions which are 
found enclosed in solid rocks, and showed by his dis- 
section of a shark which had been recently captured 
and by a comparison of its teeth with those found 
fossil in the cliffs, that they were identical. The 
same author also pointed out the resemblance be- 
tween the shells discovered in the Italian strata and 
those living on the adjacent shores. It was not until 
the close of the eighteenth century, however, that 
the study of fossil remains received a decided impe- 
tus. It is curious to note that many of these later 



authors maintained the occurrence of a universal 
flood to account for the presence of fossil shells and 
bones on the dry land. 

Fossils an Index to Age. — 

A large part of the credit of showing how fossils 
are restricted to certain strata, and help to fix the 
succession and age of the beds, is due to the English 

Fig. 4.— William Smith (1769-1839.) 

''The Father of English Geology," at the agelof^ 69. 

{From Brit. Mus. Cat.) 

geologist and surveyor, William Smith (Fig. 4). 
"The Father of English Geology/ ' as he has been 
called, published two works 1 in the early part of last 
century, in which he expressed his view of the value 
of fossils to the geologist and surveyor, and showed 
that there was a regular law of superposition of one 
bed upon another, and that strata could be identified 
at distant localities by their included fossils. Upon 

1. — "Strata identified by Organised Fossils," 1816-1819; 
and "Stratigraphical System of Organised Fossils," 1817. 


this foundation the work of later geologists has been 
firmly established; and students of strata and of 
fossils work hand in hand. 

Stratigraphy. — 

That branch of geology which discusses the nature 
and relations of the various sediments of the earth's 
crust, and the form in which they were laid down, 
is called Stratigraphy. From it we learn that in 
bygone times many of those places that are now 
occupied by dry land have been, often more than 
once, covered by the sea; and thus Tennyson's lines 
are forcibly brought to mind — 

" There where the long street roars hath been 
The stillness of the central sea." 

Elevated Sea-beds. — 

A striking illustration in proof of this emergence 
of the land from the sea is the occurrence of marine 
shells similar to those now found living in the sea, 
in sea-cliffs sometimes many hundreds of feet above 
sea-level. When these upraised beds consist of 
shingle or sand with shore-loving shells, as limpets 
and mussels, they are spoken of as Raised Beaches. 
Elevated beaches are often found maintaining 
the same level along coast-lines for many miles, like 
those recorded by Darwin at Chili and Peru, or in 
the south of England (Fig. 5). They also occur 
intermittently along the Victorian coast, especially 
around the indents, where they have survived the 
wear and tear of tides along the coast line (Fig. 6). 
They are also a common feature, as a capping, on 
many coral islands which have undergone elevation. 

Fig. 5.— A Raised Beach at Black Rock, Brighton, England. 

( Original) 

I : — ; — ^. : I — i — i-i. 

Fig. 6. — Raised Beach (a) and Native Middens (b) 

Torquay, Victoria. {Original), 



Fig. 7. — Marine Fossils (Orthis flabellulum, Sowerby.) 

About nat. size. In Volcanic Tuff of Ordovician Age. From the 
Summit of Snowdon, North Wales, at an elevation of 3571 feet 
above sea level. (F.C. Coll.) 

Sea-beds far from the Present Coast. — 

Marine beds of deeper water origin may be found 
not only close to the coast-line, but frequently 
on the tops of inland hills some miles from the sea- 
coast. Their included sea-shells and other organic 
remains are often found covered by fine sediment 
forming extensive beds; and they may frequently occur 
in the position in which they lived and died (Fig. 7). 
Although it is well known that sea-birds carry shell- 
fish for some distance inland, yet this would not 
account for more than a few isolated examples. 

Raised Beaches as Distinct from Middens. — 

Again, it may be argued that the primitive inhabi- 
tants of countries bordering the coast were in the 
habit of piling up the empty shells of the edible mol- 
luscs used by them for food: but these "kitchen 
middens" are easily distinguished from fossil deposits 
like shelly beaches, by the absence of stratified layers ; 
and, further, by the shells being confined to edible 
species, as the Cockle (Cardium), the Blood-cockle 
(Area),* the Mussel (Mytilus), and the Oyster 
(Ostrea) (Fig. 8). 



Fig. 8.— Remains of Edible Shell Fish (Kitchen-midden— native, 

in Sand Dunes near Spring Creek, Torquay, Victoria. {Orig 

Submerged Forests. — 

Evidence of change in the coast-line is shown by 
the occurrence of submerged forest-land, known as 
"fossil forests," which consist of the stumps of trees 
still embedded in the black, loamy soil. Such forests, 

Fig. 9.— Part of a Submerged Forest 

seen at low water on the Cheshire coast at I^easowe, England. 

{From Seward's "Fossil Plants") 


when of comparatively recent age, are found near 
the existing coast-line, and may sometimes extend for 
a considerable distance out to sea (Fig. 9). 

From the foregoing we learn that : — 

1. — Fossils afford data of the various Changes that 
have taken place in past times in the Relative Posi- 
tions of Land and Water. 

Changes of Climate in the Past. — 

At the present day we find special groups of ani- 
mals (fauna), and plants (flora), restricted to tropi- 
cal climates; and others, conversely, to the arctic 
regions. Cycads and tree-ferns, for example, seem 
to flourish best in warm or sub-tropical countries: 
yet in past times they were abundant in northern 
Europe in what are now temperate and arctic regions, 
as in Yorkshire, Spitzbergen, and Northern Siberia, 
where indeed at one time they formed the principal 

The rein-deer and musk-sheep, now to be found 
only in the arctic regions, once lived in the South of 
England, France and Germany. The dwarf willow 
(Salix polaris) and an arctic moss (Hypnum tur- 
gescens), now restricted to the same cold region, 
occur fossil in the South of England. 

In Southern Australia and in New Zealand, the 
marine shells which lived during the earlier and 
middle Tertiary times belong to genera and species 
which are indicative of a warmer climate than that 
now prevailing; this ancient fauna being like that 
met with in dredging around the northern coasts of 
Australia (Fig. 10.) 


Fig. 10.— A Fossil Shell (Pecten murrayanus, Tate) 

Of Oligocene to I^ower Pliocene Age in Southern Australia ; closely 
allied to, if not identical with, a species living off the coast of 
Queensland. About nat. size. (F.C. Coll.) 

From the above evidence we may say that : — 

2. — Fossils teach us that in Former Times the Cli- 
mate of certain parts of the earth's surface was Dif- 
ferent from that now existing. 

Fossils as Guides to Age of Strata. — 

In passing from fossil deposits of fairly recent 
origin to those of older date, we find the proportion 
of living species gradually diminish, being replaced 
by forms now extinct. After this the genera them- 
selves are replaced by more ancient types, and if we 
penetrate still deeper into the series of geological 
strata, even families and orders of animals and plants 
give place to others entirely unknown at the present 


From this we conclude that: — 

3. — Fossil Types, or Guide Fossils, are of great 
value in indicating the Relative Age of Geological 

Gradual Evolution of Life-forms from Lower 
to Higher Types.— 

As a general rule the various types of animals 
and plants become simpler in organisation as we de- 
scend the geological scale. For example, in the old- 
est rocks the animals are confined to the groups of 
Foraminifera, Sponges, Corals, Graptolites, Shell- 
fish and Trilobites, all back-boneless animals: whilst 
it was not until the Devonian period that the primi- 
tive fishes appeared as a well-defined group ; and in 
the next formation, the Carboniferous Series, the first 
traces of the Batrachians (Frog-like animals) and 
Reptiles are found. Birds do not appear, so far as 
their remains are known, until near the close of the 
Jurassic; whilst Mammals are sparsely represented 
by Monotremes and Marsupials in the Triassic and 
Jurassic, becoming more abundant in Cainozoic 
times, and by the Eutheria (Higher Mammals) from 
the commencement of the Eocene period. 

It is clear from the above and other facts in the 
geological distribution of animal types that: — 

4. — The Geological Record supports in the main 
the Doctrine of Evolution from Simpler to more Com- 
plex types-, and fossils throw much light upon the 
Ancestry of Animals and Plants now found TAving. 



AN elementary knowledge of the principles un- 
derlying the classification of animals and 
plants is essential to the beginner in the study 
of fossils. 

The Naming of Animals. — 

In order to make a clearly understood reference 
to an animal, or the remains of one, it is as necessary 
to give it a name as it is in the case of a person or 
a place. Before the time of Linnaeus (1707-1778), 
it was the custom to refer, for example, to a 
shell, in Latin 1 as "the little spiral shell, with cross 
markings and tubercles, like a ram's horn;" or to 
a worm as "the rounded worm with an elevated 
back." Improvements in this cumbersome method of 
naming were made by several of the earlier authors 
by shortening the description ; but no strict rule was 
established until the tenth edition of Linnaeus' 
"Systema Naturae" (1758), when that author insti- 
tuted his binomial nomenclature by giving each 

1. — The Latin description was used more commonly than 
it is at present, as a universal scientific language. 




form enumerated both a generic and specific name. 
In plain words, this method takes certain life-forms 
closely related, but differing in minute particulars, 
and places them together in a genus or kindred group. 
Thus the true dogs belong to the genus Canis, but 
since this group also includes wolves, jackals, and 
foxes, the various canine animals are respectively 
designated by a specific name; thus the dog {Canis 
familiaris), the dingo (C. dingo), the wolf (C. 
lupus), the jackal (C. aureus), and the fox (C. 
vulpes). The generic name is placed first. Allied 
genera are grouped in families, (for example, Cani- 
dae), these into orders (ex. Carnivora), the orders 
into classes (ex. Mammalia), and the classes into 
phyla or subkingdoms (ex. Vertebrata). 

Plants are classified in much the same way, with 
the exception that families and orders are, by some 
authors, regarded as of equal value, or even reversed 
in value; and instead of the term phylum the name 
series is used. 

Classification of the Animal Kingdom. 







Foraminifera, Radiolaria. 

Sponges, Corals, Stromatopo- 
roids, Graptolites. 

Crinoids, Starfishes, Brittle- 
stars, Sea-urchins. 

Worms (tube-making and bur- 
rowing kinds) . 

Polyzoa or Sea-mats, Braehio- 
pods or Lamp-shells. 

Shell-fish: as Bivalves, Tusk- 
shells, Chitons or Mail- 
she 1 1 s, Gasteropods or 
Snails, Pteropods or Sea- 
butterflies; Cuttle-fishes. 




Joint-footed animals: as Trilo- 
bites, Cyprids, Crabs and 
Lobsters, Centipedes, Spiders 
and Insects. 

Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles,, 
Birds and Mammals. 

Classification of Animal Kingdom. 

The first seven groups of the above classification 
are back-boneless animals or Invertebrata ; the eighth 
division alone comprising the animals with a vertebra 
or backbone. 

Characters of the Several Phyla. — 

In the first group are placed those animals which, 
when living, consist of only one cell, or a series of 
similar cells, but where the cells were never combined 
to form tissues having special functions, as in the 
higher groups. 


The Amoeba of freshwater ponds is an example 
of such, but owing to its skin or cortex 
being soft, and its consequent inability to 
be preserved, it does not concern us here. 
There are, however, certain marine animals of 
this simple type of the Protozoa which se- 
crete carbonate of lime to form a chambered shell 
(Foraminifera) ; or silica to form a netted and con- 
centrically coated shell held together with radial rods 
(Radiolaria) ; and both of these types are found 
abundantly as fossils. They are mainly microscopic, 
except in the case of the nummulites and a few other 
kinds of foraminifera, which are occasionally as large 
as a crown piece. 



The second group, the Coelenterata, shows a decided 
advance in organisation, for the body is multi- 
cellular, and provided with a body-cavity which 
serves for circulation and digestion. The important 
divisions of this group, in which the organisms have 
hard parts capable of being fossilised, are the limy 
and flinty Sponges, the Corals, and allied groups, 
as well as the delicate Graptolites which often cover 
the surface of the older slates with their serrated, 
linear forms, resembling pieces of fret-saws. 


The third group, Echinodermata, comprises the 
Sea-lilies (Crinoids), Starfishes and Sea-urchins, be- 
sides a few other less important types ; and all these 
mentioned are found living at the present day. Their 
* bodies are arranged in a radial manner, the skin be- 
ing strengthened by spicules and hardened by limy 
deposits ultimately forming plates. They have a 
•digestive canal and a circulatory system, and are thus 
one remove higher than the preceding group. 


The fourth group, Vermes (Worms), are animals 
with a bilateral or two-sided body, which is some- 
times divided into segments, but without jointed 
appendages. Those which concern the student of 
fossils are the tube-making worms, the errant or wan- 
dering worms which form casts like the lob-worm, 
and the burrowing kinds whose crypts or dwellings 
become filled with solid material derived from the 
surrounding mud. 



Group five, the Molluscoidea, contains two types p 
the Flustras or Sea-mats (Polyzoa) and the Lamp- 
shells (Brachiopoda). They are at first sight totally 
unlike ; for the first-named are colonies of compound 
animals, and the second are simple, and enclosed 
between two valves. They show in common, how- 
ever, a bilateral symmetry. The mouth is furnished 
with fine tentacles, or with spirally rolled hair-like 
or ciliated processes. 


The sixth group, the Mollusca, includes all shell- 
fish. They are soft-bodied, bilaterally symmetrical 
animals, without definite segments. The shells, on 
account of being formed of carbonate of lime on an 
organic basis, are often found preserved in f ossifer- 
ous strata. 

The seventh group, the Arthropoda, or joint-footed 
animals, are distinguished by their segmented, lat- 
eral limbs, and by having a body composed of a series 
of segments or somites. The body and appendages 
are usually protected by a horny covering, the 'exo- 
skeleton. ' The group of the Trilobites played an im- 
portant part in the first era of the formation of the 
earth ? s crust; whilst the other groups were more 
sparsely represented in earlier geological times, but 
became more and more predominant until the present 

The great group of the Vertebrata comes last, with 
its chief characteristic of the backbone structure^ 
which advances in complexity from the Fishes to the- 
Higher Mammals. 



A Simplified Classification of the Vegetable 








Sea-weeds: as Corallines and 

Calcareous Algae. 
Mosses, Liverworts. 
Fern-like plants, as Horse-tails, 

Club-mosses and true Ferns. 
Oldest Seed-bearing plants. 

with fern-like foliage. 
Plants with naked seeds, as Cy- 

cads (Fern-palms), Ginkgo 

(Maiden-hair Tree), and 

Conifers (Pine trees). 
Flowering plants, as Grasses, 

Lilies and all ordinary trees 

and plants. 

Characters of the Plant Series. 


The first series, the Thalloph} 7 tes, are simple "uni- 
cellular plants, and occupy the same position in the 
vegetable kingdom as the Protozoa do in the animal 
kingdom. Fossil remains of these organisms seem to 
be fairly well distributed throughout the entire geo- 
logical series, but, owing to the soft structure of the 
fronds in most of the types, it is often a matter of 
doubt Avhether we are dealing with a true thallophyte 
or not. Many of the so-called sea-weeds (fucoids) 
may be only trails or markings left by other organ- 
isms, as shell-fish and crustaceans. 


The second series, the Bryophytes or moss plants, 
are represented in the fossil state by a few r unimpor- 
tant examples. 



The third series, the Pteridophytes, includes the 
Ferns found from the Devonian up to the present 
day, Horse-tails and allied forms, like Equisetites, 
and the Club-mosses and Lepidodendron of the Car- 
boniferous period in various parts of the world. 


The fourth series, the Pteridospermeae, comprises 
some of the earliest seed-bearing plants, as Alethop- 
teris and Neuropteris. They occur in rocks of Upper 
Palaeozoic age as far as known. 


The fifth series, the Gymnospermeae, contains the 
most important types of plants found fossil, especially 
those of the primary and secondary rocks: they were 
more abundant, with the exception of the Coniferae, 
in the earlier than in the more recent geological 


The sixth series, the Angiospermeae, comprises all 
the Flowering Trees and Plants forming the bulk of 
the flora now living, and is divided into the kinds 
having single or double seed-leaves (Monocotyledones 
the Dicotyledones respectively). This important 
group came into existence towards the close of the 
Cretaceous period simultaneously with the higher 
mammals, and increased in abundance until modern 



Superposition of Strata. — 

FOSSILS are chiefly found in rocks which have 
been formed of sediments laid down in water, 
such as sandstone, shale and most limestones. 
These rocks, broadly speaking, have been deposited 
in a horizontal position, though really slightly in- 
clined from shore to deep-water. One layer has 
l)een formed above another, so that the oldest layer 
is at the bottom, and the newest at the top, of the 
series (Fig. 11). Let us, for instance, examine a 
cliff showing three layers : the lower, a sandstone, 
we w T ill call A ; the intermediate, a shale or clay bed, 
B ; and the uppermost, a limestone or marl, C (Fig. 
12). In forming a conclusion about the relative ages 
of the beds, we shall find that A is always older than 
B, and B than C, provided no disturbance of the 
strata has taken place. For instance, the beds once 
horizontally deposited may have been curved and 
folded over, or even broken and thrust out of place, 
within limited areas; but occurrences like these are 
extremely rare. Moreover, an examination of the 
surrounding country, or of deep cuttings in the neigh- 
bourhood, will tell us if there is any probability of 
this inversion of strata having taken place. 


^v":;iv-:::i^4u: ,«s»«sl«t ■■■.■■. 


Fig . 1 1 .—Horizontal Layers of Fossiliferous Clays and Sands. 

In Sea Cliff, Torquay Coast, Victoria, looking towards Bird Rock. 





J " 


» u 


<> t 




" ... A 



— : 


■ B""= 


= ^ 

■=r — = 

m" ' 

. . • = 

3* * 


^~~ • 

.^ ' 

- .• 

* , X? 

j> * 


. "• A 

Fig. 1 2.— Cliff-Section to Show Superposition of Strata. 

A = Sandstone. B = Shale. C = Limestone. 



This law of superposition holds good throughout 
the mass of sedimentary rocks forming the crust of 
the earth. 

(1). Thus, the position of the strata shows the 
relative ages of the beds. 

Differences in Fossil Faunas. — 

Turning once again to our ideal cliff section, if we 
examine the fossils obtained from bed A, we shall 
find them differing in the number of kinds or species 
common to the other beds above and below. Thus, 
there will be more species alike in beds A and B or 
in B and C. In other words the faunas of A and B 
are more nearly related than those of A and C. This 
is explained by the fact that there is a gradual change 
in specific forms as we pass through the time series 
of strata from below upwards ; so that the nearer one 
collecting platform is to another, as a rule, the 
stronger is the community of species. 

Guide Fossils. — 

Certain kinds of fossils are typical of particular 
formations. They are known as guide fossils, and 
by their occurrence help us to gain some idea of the 
approximate age of rocks widely separated by ocean 
and continent. Thus we find fossils typical of the 
Middle Devonian rocks in Europe, which also occur 
in parts of Australia, and we therefore conclude that 
the Australian rocks containing those particular fos- 
sils belong to the same formation, and are nearly of 
the same age. 

(2). The included fossils, therefore, give evidence 
of the age of the beds. 


Value of Lithological Evidence. — 

The test of age by rock-structure has a more 
restricted use, but is of value when taken in con- 
junction with the sequence of the strata and the 
character of their included fossils. 

To explain both the valuable and the uncertain 
elements of this last method as a determinant of age, 
we may cite, for instance, the Upper Ordovician 
slates of Victoria and New South Wales as an ex- 
ample of uniform rock formation; whilst the yellow 
mudstones and the grey limestones of the Upper 
Silurian (Yeringian series) of the same states, are 
instances of diverse lithological structures in strata 
of similar age. A reference in the latter case to the 
assemblages of fossils found therein, speedily settles 
the question. 

(3). Hence, the structure and composition of the 
rocks (lithology), gives only partial evidence in re- 
gard to age. 

Strata Vertically Arranged. — 

The Stratigraphical Series of fossiliferous sedi- 
ments comprises bedded rocks from all parts of the 
world, which geologists arrange in a vertical column 
according to age. 

A general computation of such a column for the 
fossiliferous rocks of Europe gives a thickness of 
about 14 miles. This is equivalent to a mass of strata 
lying edgewise from Melbourne to Ringwood. The 
Australian sediments form a much thicker pile of 
rocks, for they can hardly fall short of 37 miles, or 
nearly the distance from Melbourne to Healesville. 



This vertical column of strata was formed during 
three great eras of time. The oldest is called the 
Primary or Palaeozoic ("ancient life"), in which 
the animals and plants are of primitive types. This 
is followed by the Secondary or Mesozoic ("middle 
life"), in which the animals and plants are inter- 
mediate in character between the Palaeozoic and the 
later, Cainozoic. The third era is the Tertiary or 
Cainozoic ("recent life"), in which the animals and 
plants are most nearly allied to living foruH. These 
great periods are further subdivided into epochs, as 
the Silurian epoch ; and these again into stages, as the 
Yeringian stage. 

Vertical Column of Fossiliferous Strata, Australia. 




(Note 1). 





Dunes, Beaches, and Shell- 
beds now forming. 

Raised Beaches, River Ter- 
races, Swamp Deposits 
with Diprotodon, Cave 
Breccias, Helix Sand- 

Upper. — Estuarine beds of 
bores in the Murray ba- 
sin, Marine beds of 
Limestone Creek, Glenelg 
River, Vic. ( Werrikooian) . 

Lower. — ■ Kalimnan red 
sands (terrestrial) and 
shell marls (marine) of 
Victoria, Deep Leads 
(fluviatile) in part, Up- 
per Aldingan of South 





( Continued ) 




Deep Leads in part: Leaf- 
beds of Bacchus Marsh, 
Dalton and Gunning. 
Janjukian Series of C. 
Otway, Spring Creek, and 
Table Cape. Batesford 
Limestone. Polyzoal 

Rock of Mt. Gambier and 
the Nullarbor Plains. 
Older Cainozoic of Mur- 
ray basin, Lower Aldin- 
gan Series of S. Austra- 
lia, Corio Bay and 
Bairnsdale Series. 

Shelly clays and leaf-beds 
of the Balcombian Series 
at Mornington ; also 
Shell-marls and clays 
with Brown Coal, Altona 
Bay, and lower beds at 
Muddy Creek, W. Vict. 

Probably no representatives. 






Upper. — Leaf-beds of Croy- 
don, Q. Desert Sandstone, 
Q. Radiolarian Rock, N. 
Territory. Gin-gin Chalk, 

Lower. — Rolling Downs 
Formn., Q. Lake Eyre 

beds, S.A. 

Marine. — Geraldton, W.A. 

Freshwater. — Carbonace- 
ous sandstone of S. 
Gippsland, the Wannon, 
C. Otway and Barrabool 
Hills. Ipswich Series, Q. 
Mesozoic of Tasmania, 
Talbragar beds, N.S.W. 

Upper leaf-beds at Bald 
Hill, Bacchus Marsh, Vict. 
Hawkesbury Series (Par- 
ramatta Shales, Hawkes- 
bury Sandstone, Narra- 
been beds), N.S.W. Bur- 
rum Beds, Q. 


In 1st column-for " Mesoz 01 c or Secondary 


Read " Paleozoic or Primary 

and omit divisional line. 

S^^^aSP^A'^ • rill 

' fc ■ ' 







( Continued ) . 



Carbopermian (Note 2), 
Coal Measures of New 
South Wales, W. Austra- 
lia, Queensland ( Gympie 
Series) and Tasmania. 
Gangamopteris beds of 
Bacchus Marsh, Vic. 
Upper Carboniferous of 
Clarence Town, N.S.W. 

Fish and Plant beds, 
Mansfield, Vict. Gram- 
pian sandstone ; Avon 
River sandstone, Vict. 
( ? ) Star beds, Queens- 
1 a n d. Lepidodendron 

beds of Kimberley, W.A. 
(Note 3). 





UPPER and 


Upper. — Sandstones of Igu- 
ana Creek, with plant re- 
mains. Lepidodendron 
beds with Lingula, Ny- 
rang Creek, N.S.VV ales. 

Middle. — Fossiliferous mar- 
bles and mudstones of 
Buchan, Bindi and Tab- 
berabbera, Vict. Rocks 
of the Murrumbidgee, 
N.S. Wales, and of Bur- 
dekin, Queensland. 

Upper. — ( Yeringian stage ) . 
— Lilydale, Loyola, Thom- 
son River, and Waratah 
Bay, Vict.; Bowning and 
Yass (in part), N.S. 
Wales ; Queensland . 

Lower (Melbournian 
stage). — Melbourne, 
Heathcote, Vict. : Bown- 
ing and Yass (in part), 
N.S. Wales. Gordon R. 

Slates (graptolitic) . — Vic- 
toria and New South 
Wales. ( ? ) Gordon River 
Limestone, Tas., in part 
( Note 4 ) . Larapintine 
series of Central Austra- 

Mudstones and lime- 

stones of Tasmania, 
South Australia, Vic- 
toria and W. Australia. 



( Continued ) . 


Fossiliferous rocks doubt- 
ful; chiefly represented 
by schistose and other 
metamorphic rocks. 

1. — The classification of the Cainozoics as employed here is 
virtually the same as given by McCoy in connection with 
his work for the Victorian Geological Survey. The writer 
has obtained further evidence to support these conclusions 
from special studies in the groups of the cetacea, mollusca and 
the protozoa. The alternative classification of the caino- 
zoics as given by one or two later authors, introducing the 
useful local terminology of Hall and Pritchard for the 
various stages or assises is as follows: — 











( ?) Oligocene 







(lower beds 
at that loc.) 



in part 


2. — Or Permo-carboniferous. As the series is held by 
some authorities to partake of the faunas of both epochs, it 
is preferable to use the shorter word, which moreover gives 
the natural sequence. There is, however, strong evidence in 
favour of using the term Permian for this important series. 

3. — Mr. W. S. Dun regards the Lepidodendron beds of W. 
Australia, New South Wales and Queensland as of Upper 
Devonian age. There is no doubt, from a broad view of the 
whole question as to the respective age of these beds in Aus- 
tralia, that the one series is continuous, and probably repre- 
sents the Upper Devonian and the Lower Carboniferous of the 
northern hemisphere. 

4. — These limestones contain a fauna of brachiopods and 
corals which, at present, seems to point to the series as inter- 
mediate between the older Silurian and the Upper Ordovician. 



Vertical Column of Fossiliferous Strata, New 




















River Alluvium. Beach 

Sands and Gravel. 

Raised Beaches. Older Gra- 
vel Drifts. 
Moraines. Boulder Clays. 

Upper. — Petane series. \ *g 
Lower. — ■ Waitotara I g g 
and Awatere series. J &p^ 

Oamaru series. kJ ^ 

Waimangaroa series. 

Waipara series (of Hut- 

Mataura and Putataka 

Wairoa,' Otapiri and Kai- 

hiku series. 

Aorangi (unfossiliferous) 

Maitai series (with Spiri- 
fer and Productus. ) 

( ? ) Te Anau series ( unf os- 
siliferous) . 

Wangapeka series. 

Kakanui series (with Low- 
er Ordovician graptolite 

Unfossiliferous. Metamor- 
phic schists of the Mani- 
ototo series. 

L — Based for the most part, but with some slight modifi- 
cations, on Prof. J. Park's classification in "Geology of New 
Zealand/' 1910. 

fig. 13. 


Life £ 
Group 2 


Protozoa — 
Sponges- - 


Corals — 



m ollusca- 





EM., del.} 


Fig. 14.— Skeleton of Diprotodon australis owcn. 
Uncovered in Morass at I^ake Callabonna, South Australia. 

(By permission of Dr. E. C. Stirling) . 



AS already noticed, it is the hard parts of buried 
animals and plants that are generally pre- 
served. We will now consider the groups of 
organisms, one by one, and note the particular parts 
of each which we may reasonably expect to find in 
the fossil state. 

MAMMALS.— The bones and teeth: as the Di- 
protodon remains of Lake Callabonna in South Aus- 
lia (Fig. 14), of West Melbourne Swamp, Victoria, 


Fig. 1 5.— Bird Bones 

Exposed on Sand-blow at SealjBay^ 
King Island. 
{Photo by C. L. Barrett). 

Fig. 16. — Impression of a Bird's 
Feather in Ironstone. 

About 2 A nat. size. Of Cainozoic 
(? Janjukian) Age. Redruth, 

(Nat. Mus. Coll.) 

Fig. 1 7.— Notochelone costata, 
Owen sp. (Anterior portion of 

About % nat. size. A Marine Tur- 
tle from the Lower Cretaceous 
of Flinders River, Queensland. 
(Nat. Mus. Coll.)' 



;and the Darling Downs, Queensland. Rarely the skin, 
.as in the carcases of the frozen Mammoth of the tun- 
dras of Northern Siberia ; or the dried remains of 
the Grypotherium of South American caves. 

BIRDS : — Bones : as the Moa hones of New Zea- 
land and the Emu bones of the King Island sand- 
dunes (Fig. 15). Very rarely the impressions of the 
feathers of birds are found, as in the ironstone occur- 
xing in the Wannon district of Victoria (Fig. 16), 
and others in fine clays and marls on the continent 
of Europe and in England. Fossil eggs of sea-birds 
are occasionally found in coastal sand-dunes of Holo- 
'Cene age. 

REPTILES.— Skeletons of fossil turtles (Notoche- 
Zone) are found in Queensland (Fig. 17). Whole 
skeletons and the dermal armour (spines and bony 
plates) of the gigantic, specialised reptiles are found 
in Europe, North America, and in other parts of the 

FISHES. — Whole skeletons are sometimes found 
in sand and clay rocks, as in the Trias of Gosford, 
New South Wales (Fig. 18), and in the Jurassic of 
South Gippsland. The ganoid or enamel-scaled fishes 
are common fossils in the Devonian and Jurassic, not- 
ably in Germany, Scotland and Canada : and they 
also occur in the sandy mudstone of the Lower 
Carboniferous of Mansfield, Victoria. 

INSECTS.— Notwithstanding their fragility, in- 
sects are often well preserved as fossils, for the reason 
that their skin and wings consist of the horny sub- 
stance called chitin. The Tertiary marls of Europe 
are very prolific in insect remains (Fig. 19). From 



Fig. 18. f 

A Fossil Fish with Ganoid Scales (Pristisomus crassus, A.S. Woodw . 

About X A nat. size. Trias (Hawkesbury Series), of Gosford, New 
South Wales. {NaL MuSt ColL) 

the Miocene beds of Florissant, Colorada, U.S.A., 
several hundred species of insects have been des- 

CRUSTACEA. — The outer crust, or exoskeleton, 
of these animals is often hard, being formed of a com- 
pound of carbonate and phosphate of lime on an 
organic, chitinous base. The earliest forms of this 

1 — , — 

Fig 1 9. — A Fossil Insect 
(Tipula sp.) in Amber. 

Nat. size. Oligocene beds ; 
Baltic Prussia. 

(F.C. Coll.) 

Tig. 20.— A Fossil Lobster (Thalassina emerii, Bell). 

Slightly reduced. From the Pleistocene of Port Darwin, Northern 
Territory. {NaL Mus Coll) 

' - 

w • 


? 1§§ 

irfjS*£-*-" 7 - •' ' r^ £jw 

Bp^fi^O? f'-' J" 

"''-, • 


rgK."\ mt Xri y* : ~ 


«^4lL>* . ;>" 'iT^^PIB 

\ 'J7 

m^*- / - 




Pig. 21 .—An Ammonite (Desmoceras f lindersi, McCoy sp.) 

Half nat. size. Showing complex sutures. Iy. Cretaceous : Marathon, 
Flinders River, Queensland. {NaL Mus Coll) 




group were the trilobites, commencing in Cambrian 
times, and of which there is a good representative 
series in Australian rocks. Remains of crabs and 
lobsters are found in the various Cainozoic deposits 
in Australia (Fig. 20), and also in the Jurassic in 
other parts of the world. 

MOLLUSCA.— The Cuttle-fish group (Cephalo- 
poda, "head-footed J ') ? is well represented by the 
Nautilus-like, but straight Orthoceras shells com- 
mencing in Ordovician times, and, in later periods, by 
the beautiful, coiled Ammonites (Fig. 21). The 
true cuttle-fishes possess an internal bone, the sepio- 
staire, which one may see at the present day drifted 
on to the sand at high-water mark on the sea-shore. 
The rod-like Belemnites are of this nature, and 
occur abundantly in the Australian Cretaceous rocks 
of South Australia and Queensland (Fig. 22). 

Hg. 22. 

Belemnites (Belemnites 

diptycha, McCoy). 

% nat. size. I,ower Cretaceous. 
Central South Australia. 

(Nat. Mus. Coll) 

Fig. 23. — A Group of Lamp Shells 
(Magellania flavescens, Lam. sp.) 

Attached to a Polyzoan. 

About % nat. size'. Dredged from 

Westernport, Victoria. 

{C.J. Gabrirl Coll.) 


Elephant-tusk shells (Scaphopoda) are frequent in 
our Tertiary beds: they are also sparingly found in 
the Cretaceous, and some doubtful remains occur in 
the Palaeozoic strata of Australia. 

The shells of the ordinary mollusca, such as the 
snails, whelks, mussels, and scallops, are abundant in 
almost all geological strata from the earliest periods. 
Their calcareous shells form a covering which, after 
the decay of the animal within, are from their nature 
among the most easily preserved of fossil remains. 
There is hardly an estuary bed, lake-deposit, or sea- 
bottom, but contains a more or less abundant assem- 
blage of these shell-fish remains, or testa cea as they 
were formerly called (" testa. 7 ' a shell or potsherd). 
We see, therefore, the importance of this group of 
fossils for purposes of comparison of one fauna with 
another (antea, Pig. 1). 

The chitons or mail-shells, by their jointed nature, 
consisting of a series of pent-roof-shaped valves 
united by ligamental tissue, are nearly always repre- 
sented in the fossil state by separate valves. Fossil 
examples of this group occur in Australia both in 
Palaeozoic rocks and, more numerously, in the 
Cainozoic series. 

MOLLUSCOIDEA.— The Brachiopods or Lamp- 
shells consist generally of two calcareous valves as in 
the true mollusca (Fig. 23), but are sometimes of 
horny texture. Like the previous class, they are 
also easily preserved as fossils. They possess bent, 
loop-like or spiral arms, called brachia, and by the 
movement of fine ciliated (hair-like) processes on 
their outer edges conduct small food particles to the 



month. The brachia are supported by shelly pro- 
cesses, to which are attached, in the Spirifers, delicate 
spirally coiled ribbons. These internal structures 
are often beautifully preserved, even though they are 
so delicate, from the fact that on the death of the 
animal the commissure or opening round the valves 
is so tightly closed as to prevent the coarse mud from 
penetrating while permitting the finer silt, and more 
rarely mineral matter in solution, to pass, and sub- 
sequently to be deposited within the cavity. At the 
Murray River cliffs in South Australia, a bed of 
Cainozoic limestone contains many of these brachio- 
pod shells in a unique condition, for the hollow valves 
have been filled in with a clear crystal of selenite or 

Fig. 24.— Zoarium of a Living 
Polyzoan. (Retepora) 

% nat. size. 

Flinders, Victoria. 

{RC. Coll.) 

Fig. 25.— A Fossil Polyzoan (Macropora 
clarkei, T. Woods, sp.) 

About X A nat. size. Cainozoic (Balcombian). 
Muddy Creek, Victoria. 

(F.C. Coll.) 


gypsum, through which may be seen the loop or 
brachial support preserved in its entirety. . 

The Sea-mats or Polyzoa, represented by Retepora 
(the Lace-coral) (Fig. 24) and Flustra (the Sea-mat) 
of the present sea-shore, have a calcareous skeleton, 
or zoarium, which is easily preserved as a fossil. 
Polyzoa are very abundant in the Cainozoic beds of 
Australia, New Zealand, and elsewhere (Fig. 25). 
In the Mesozoic series, on the other hand, they are 
not so well represented; but in Europe and North 
America they play an important part in forming the 
Cretaceous and some Jurassic strata by the abund- 
ance of their remains. 

WORMS (VERMES).— The hard, calcareous tubes 
of Sea-worms, the Polychaeta ("many bristles ") are 
often found in fossiliferous deposits, and sometimes 
form large masses, due to their gregarious habits of 
life; they also occur attached to shells such as 
oysters (Fig. 26). The burrows of the wandering 

worms are found in Silurian strata in Australia ; 
and the sedentary forms likewise occur from the 
Devonian upwards. 

ECHINODERMATA.— Sea-urchins (Echinoidea) 
possess a hard, calcareous, many-plated test or cover- 
ing and, when living are covered with spines (Fig. 
27). Both the tests and spines are found fossil, the 
former sometimes whole when the sediment has been 
quietly thrown down upon them; but more fre- 
quently, as in the Shepherd's crown type (Cidaris), 
are found in disjointed plates, owing to the fact that 
current action, going on during entombment has 
caused the plates to separate. The spines are very 
rarely found attached to the test, more frequently 



Fig. 26.— Fossil Worm Tubes 
(? Serpula.) 

Attached to a Pecten. 

Slightly Enlarged. Cainozoic 
(Balcombian). Muddy Creek, 
Hamilton, Victoria. 

(F.C. Coll) 

Fig. 27. 

A Regular Sea - Urchin (Strongylo- 

centrotus erythrogrammus, Val.) 

About ^ nat. size. Showing Spines 
attached. Iyiving. Victoria. 

{F.C. Coll.) 

being scattered through the marl or sandy clay in 
which the sea-urchins are buried. The best condi- 
tions for the preservation of this group is a marly 
limestone deposit, in which case the process of fossil- 
isation would be tranquil (Fig. 28). 

: '%,:.. 

- . 

1 >4m 

• ■ 5 'i';l' 

— ■ 

Fig. 28.— A Fossil Sea-Urchin 
Linthia antiaustralis, Tate). 

Test denuded of Spines. 

About % nat. size. 
(Janjukian) : 


{Nat. Mus. Coll.) 

Fig. 29. — Ophioderma egertoni, 
Broderip, sp. 

About K nat. size. A Brittle Star 
from the I^ias of Seaton, Devon. 

{Nat. Mus. Coll.) 


The true Starfishes (Asteroidea), are either 
covered with calcareous plates, or the skin is hardened 
by rough tubercles; and these more lasting portions 
are preserved in rocks of all ages. The shape of the 
animal is also often preserved in an exquisite manner 
in beds of fine mud or clay. 

The Brittle-stars (Ophiuroidea) have their body 
covered with hard, calcareous plates. Their 
remains are found in rocks as old as the Ordovician 
in Bohemia but their history in Australia begins with 
the Silurian period (Fig. 29). From thence onward 
they are occasionally found in successive strata in 
various parts of the world. 

The bag-like echinoderms (Cystidea) form a rare 
group, restricted to Palaeozoic strata. The plates of 
the sack, or theca, and those of the slender arms are 
calcareous, and are capable of being preserved in the 
fossil state. A few doubtful remains of this group 
occur in Australia. 

The bud-shaped echinoderms (Blastoidea) also 
occur chiefly in Devonian and Carboniferous strata. 
This is also a rare group, and is represented by 
several forms found only in New South Wales and 

The well known and beautiful fossil forms, the 
Stone-lilies (Crinoidea) have a very extended geolo- 
gical history, beginning in the Cambrian; whilst a 
few species are living in the ocean at the present day. 
The many-jointed skeleton lends itself well to fossil- 
isation, and remains of the crinoids are common 
in Australia mainly in Palaeozoic strata (Fig. 30).. 

rig. 30. 

A fossil Crinoid (Taxocrinus 
simplex, Phillips sp.) 

About V 2 nat size. 

Wenlock Limestone (Silurian), 
Dudley, England. 

{Nat. Mus. Coll.) 

Fig. 31.— Graptolites on Slate (Tetragraptus fruticosus, J. Hall, sp.) 

Nat. Size. Lower Ordovician. Bendigo, Victoria. 

{Nat. Mus. Colt.) 


Tig. 32. 
Polished Vertical Section of a Stroma toporoid. (Actinostroma). 

Nat. size. Middle Devonian. South Devon, England. 

(F.C. Coll.) 

In Europe they are found abundantly also in Juras- 
sic strata, especially in the Lias. 

HYDROZOA.— The Graptolites ("stone-writing") 
have a chitinous skin (periderm) to the body or hydro- 
some, which is capable of preservation to a remark- 
able degree; for their most delicate structures are 
preserved on the surfaces of the fine black mud 
deposits which subsequently became hardened into 
slates. In Australia graptolites occur from the base 
of the Ordovician to the top of the Silurian (Fig. 

Another section of the Hydrozoa is the Stromato- 
poroidea. These are essentially calcareous, and 
tfheir structure reminds one of a dense coral. The 



fig. 33.— Fossil Corals (Favosites). 

Photograph of a Polished Slab, % nat. 
size. In Devonian limestone, 
Buchan, Victoria. 

Fig. 34.— Siliceous Skeleton of a Living 
Hexactinellid Sponge. 

Probably Chonelasma. 

X4. Mauritius. (Viewed in Two 

(F.C. Co//.) 

Fig. 34. 

polyps build their tiers of cells (coenosteum) in a 
regular manner, and seem to have played the 
same part in the building of ancient reefs in Silurian, 
Devonian and Carboniferous times as the Millepora 
at the present day (Fig. 32). 

ANTHOZOA. — The true Corals have a stony skele- 
ton, and this is capable of easy preservation as a 
fossil. There is hardly any fossiliferous stratum of 
importance which has not its representative corals. 
In Australia their remains are especially abundant in 
the Silurian, Devonian (Fig. 33), and Carboniferous; 
formations, and again in the Oligocene and Miocene. 

SPONGES. — The framework of the sponge may 
consist either of flinty, calcareous, or horny material 
(Fig. 34). The two former kinds are well repre- 
sented in our Australian rocks, the first appearing in 
the Lower Ordovician associated with graptolites, and 



again in the Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks (Fig. 35) ; 
whilst the calcareous sponges are found in Silurian 
strata, near Yass, and again in the Cainozoic beds of 
Flinders, Curlewis and Mornington in Victoria. 

PROTOZOA.— The important and widely-distri- 
buted group of the Foraminifera ("hole-bearers") 
belonging to the lowest phylum, the Protozoa, gener- 
ally possess a calcareous shell. The tests range in 
size from tiny specks of the fiftieth of an inch in 
diameter, to the giant Nummulite, equalling a five 
shilling piece in size (Fig. 36). Their varied and 
beautiful forms are very attractive, but their great 
interest lies in their multifarious distribution in all 
kinds of sediments: they are also of importance be- 
cause certain of the more complex forms indicate 

Fig. 35. 

Spicules of a Siliceous Sponge 
(Ecionema newberyi, McCoy sp.) 

Highly magnified. Cainozoic 

Altona Bay Coal-Shaft. 

Fig. 36. 

Nummulites (N. gizehensis Ehr. var. 

champollioni, de la Harpe). 

About nat. size. Middle Eocene limestone. 
Cyrene, Northern Africa. 

{Coll. by Dr. J. IV. Gregory). 



Fig, 37.— Siliceous Skeletons of Radiolaria. 

X 58. Iyate Cainozoic Age. Bissex Hill, Barbados, West Indies. 

(F.C. Coll.) 

distinct life zones, being restricted to particular strata 
occurring in widely-separated areas. 

Members of the allied order of the Radiolaria have 
a flinty shell (Fig. 37) ; and these organisms are often 
found building up siliceous rocks such as cherts (Fig. 


PLANTS. — The harder portions of plants which 
are found in the fossil state are, — the wood, the 
coarser vascular (vessel-bearing) tissue of the leaves, 
and the harder parts of fruits and seeds. 

Fossil wood is of frequent occurrence in Palaeozoic, 
Mesozoic and Cainozoic strata in Australia, as, for 

Fig. 38.-Radiolaria in 

X 40. Middle Devonian : Taniworth, New South Wales. 

{From Prof. David's Collection). 

Pig. 39.— Travertin Limestone with Leaves of Beech (Fagus). 

Nat. size. Pleistocene: near Hobart, Tasmania. {Nat. Mus. Coll,) 




instance, the wood of the trees called Araucarioxylon 
and Dadoxylon in the Coal measures of New South 
Wales (see antea, Fig. 3). 

Fossil leaves frequently occur in pipeclay beds, 
as at Berwick, Victoria, and in travertine from near 
Hobart, Tasmania (Fig. 39). Fossil fruits are 
found in abundance in the ancient river gravels at 
several hundreds of feet below the surface, in the 
6 ' deep leads" of Haddon, Victoria, and other locali- 
ties in New South Wales, Queensland and Tasmania. 

Fig. 40— Freshwater Limestone with Shells (Bulinus). 

About 4/5 nat. size. Mount Arapiles, Western Victoria. 

Wat. Mus. Coll.) 



Fag. 41 ,— Fossiliferous Mudstone of Silurian (Yeringian) Age. 

With Brachiopods. About 2 /z nat. size. Near L,ilydale, Victoria. 

(F.C. Coll.) 



Under this head are placed the muds, clays, mud- 
stones, shales and slates. MUDS are usually of a 
silty nature, that is, containing a variable propor- 
tion of sand (quartz) grains. Such are the estuarine 
muds of Pleistocene and Recent age, containing brack- 
ish water foraminifera and ostracoda, and those shells 
of the mollusca usually found associated with brackish 
conditions. Lacustrine mud can be distinguished by 
the included freshwater shells, as Limnaea, Coxiella 
(brackish), Cyclas and Bulinus, as well as the fresh- 
water ostracoda or cyprids (Fig. 40). 

CLAYS are tenacious mud deposits, having the 
general composition of a hydrous silicate of alumina 
with some iron. When a clay deposit tends to split 
into leaves or laminae, either through moderate pres- 
sure or by the included fossil remains occupying dis- 
tinct planes in the rock, they are called SHALES. 



Clays and Shales of marine origin are often 
crowded wth the remains of mollusca. The shells 
are sometimes associated with leaves and other vege- 
table remains, if forming part of an alternating 
series of freshwater and marine conditions. An 
example of this type of sediments is seen in the 
Mornington beds of the Balcombian series in Victoria. 

MLTDSTONB is a term applied to a hardened clay 
deposit derived from the alteration of an impure 
limestone, and is more often found in the older series 
of rocks. Mudstones are frequently crowded with 
fossils, but owing to chemical changes within the 
rock, the calcareous organisms are as a rule repre- 
sented by casts and moulds. At times these so faith- 
fully represent the surface and cavities of the organ- 
ism that they are almost equivalent to a well 
preserved fossil (Fig. 41). 

SLATE. — When shale is subjected to great pres- 
sure, a plane of regular splitting called cleavage is 
induced, which is rarely parallel to the bedding plane 
or surface spread out on the original sea-floor : the 
cleavage more often taking place at an appreciable 
angle to the bedding plane. The graptolitic rocks 
of Victoria are either shales or slates, according to 
the absence or development of this cleavage structure 
in the rock. 



In this group are comprised all granular quartzose 
sediments, and organic rocks of flinty composition. 

SANDSTONES.— Although the base of this type 
of rock is formed of quartz sand, it often contains fos- 
sils. Owing to its porous nature, percolation of 
water containing dissolved C0 2 tends to bring about 
the solution of the calcareous shells, with the result 
that only casts of the shells remain. 

FLINTS and CHERTS.— These are found in the 
form of nodules and bands in other strata, prin- 
cipally in limestone. In Europe, flint is usually 
found in the Chalk formation, whilst chert is found 
in the Lower Greensands, the Jurassics, the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone and in Cambrian rocks. In Aus- 
tralia, flint occurs in the Miocene or Polyzoal-rock 
formation of Mount Gambier, Cape Liptrap and the 
Mallee borings. Flint is distinguished from chert 
by its being black in the mass, often with a white 
crust, and translucent in thin flakes; chert being 
more or less granular in texture and sub-opaque in 
the mass. Both kinds appear to be formed as a 
pseudomorph or replacement of a portion of the 
limestone stratum by silica, probably introduced in 
solution as a soluble alkaline silicate. Both flint 
and chert often contain fossil shells and other 
organic remains, such as radiolaria and sponge- 
spicules, which can be easily seen with a lens in thin 
flakes struck off by the hammer. 



DIATOMITE is essentially composed of the tiny 
frustules or flinty cases of diatoms (unicellular 
algae), usually admixed with some spicules of the 
freshwater sponge, Spongilla. It generally forms a 
layer at the bottom of a lake bed (Fig. 42). 


Pig. 42— Diatomaceous Earth. (Post-Tertiary). 

Containing fresh-water forms, as Pinnularia, Cocconeis and 
Synedra. X 150. Talbot, Victoria. 


Organic limestones constitute by far the most impor- 
tant group of fossiliferous rocks. Rocks of this class 
are composed either wholly of carbonate of lime, or 
contain other mineral matter also, in varying propor- 
tion. Many kinds of limestones owe their origin 
directly to the agency of animals or plants, which 
extracted the calcareous matter from the water in 



which they lived in order to build their hard external 
cases, as for example the sea-urchins ; or their 
internal skeletons, as the stony corals. The accu- 
mulated remains of these organisms are generally 
•compacted by a crystalline cement to form a coherent 

The chief groups of animals and plants forming 
such limestone rocks are: — 

(a) FORAMINIFERA. — Example. Foramini- 
feral limestone as the Nummulitic limestone of the 
Pyramids of Egypt, or the Lepidocyclina limestone 
of Batesford, near Geelong, Victoria (Fig. 43). 

Fig. 43. 
limestone composed of Polyzoa and Foraminifera (Lepidocyclina). 

X 6. Cainozoic (Janjukian). Batesford, near Geelong, Victoria. 

(F.C. Coll.) 

(b) CORALS.— Ex. "Madrepore limestone," or 
Devonian marble, with Pachypora. Also the Lily- 
dale limestone, with Favosites, of Silurian age, Vic- 
toria (Fig. 44). 



Fig. 44.— A Fossil Coral (Favosites 

% nat. size. From the Silurian of 
I^ilydale, Victoria. (F.C. Coll.) 

Fig. 45.- Polished Slab of Marble 
formed of Joints of Crinoids. 

About % nat. size. Silurian. 

Toongabbie, Gippsland, Victoria. 

(Nat Mm. Coll.) 

(c) STONE-LILIES.— Ex. Crinoidal or Entro- 
ehial limestone, Silurian, Toongabbie, Victoria (Fig. 
45). Also the Carboniferous or Mountain lime- 
stone, Derbyshire, England. 

(d) WORM-TUBES.— Ex. Serpulite limestone of 
Hanover, Germany. Ditrupa limestone of Torquay 
and Wormbete Creek, Victoria. 

(e) POLYZOA. — Ex. Polyzoal limestone, as the so- 
called Coralline Crag of Suffolk, England; and the 
Polyzoal Kock of Mount Gambier, S. Australia. 

(f) BRACHIOPODA.—Ex. Brachiopod limestone 
of Silurian age, Dudley, England. Orthis lime- 
stone of Cambrian age, Dolodrook Eiver, N. E. 

(g) MOLLUSC A.— Ex. Shell limestone, as the 
Turritella bed of Table Cape, Tasmania, and of Cam- 
perdown, Victoria (Pig. 46), or the Purbeck Marble- 
of Swanage, Dorset, England. 



Fig. 46.— Turritella Limestone. 

(T. acricula, Tate) ; Vx nat. size. 

L,ake Bullen Merri, near Camper- 
down, Victoria. 

Fig. 47.— Limestone composed of the 
Valves of an Ostracod (Cypridea). 

Upper Jurassic. X 9. 
Swanage. Dorset. England. 

(h) OSTRACODA.— Ex. Cypridiferous limestone, 
formed of the minute valves of the bivalved ostra- 
coda, as that of Durlston, Dorset, England (Fig. 47). 

(i) CADDIS FLY LARVAE.— Ex. Indusial lime- 
stone, formed of tubular eases constructed by the 
larvae of the Caddis fly (Phryganea). Occurs at 
Durckheim, Ehine District, Germany. 

(j) RED SEAWEEDS.— Ex. Nullipore lime- 
stone, formed by the stony thallus (frond) of the cal- 
careous seaweed Lithothamnion, as in the Leithakalk, 
a common building stone of Vienna. 

(k) GREEN SEAWEEDS.— Ex. Halimeda lime- 
stone, forming large masses of rock in the late Caino- 
zoic reefs of the New Hebrides (Fig. 48). 


(1) (?) BLUE-GREEN SEAWEEDS.— Ex. Gir- 
vanella limestone, forming the Peagrit of Jurassic 
age, of Gloucester, England. 


Coal). — These carbonaceous rocks are formed in much 
the same way as the deposits in estuaries and lagoon 
swamps. They result from the sometimes vast 
aggregation of vegetable material (leaves, wood and 
fruits), brought down by flooded rivers from the 
surrounding country, which form a deposit in a 
swampy or brackish area near the coast, or in an 
estuary. Layer upon layer is thus formed, alternat- 
ing with fine mud. The latter effectually seals up 
the organic layers and renders their change into a 
carbonaceous deposit more certain. 

When shale occurs between the coal-layers it is 
spoken of as the under-clay, which in most cases is the 
ancient sub-soil related to the coal-layer immediately 
above. It is in the shales that the best examples of 
fossil ferns and other plant-remains are often found. 
The coal itself is composed of a partially decomposed 
mass of vegetation which has become hardened and 
bedded by pressure and gradual drying. 

Spore coals are found in thick deposits in some 
English mines, as at Burnley in Yorkshire. They 
result from the accumulation of the spores of giant 
club-mosses which flourished in the coal-period. They 



rig. 48. 

Rock composed of the calcareous joints 

of Halimeda (a green seaweed). 

About 2 A nat. size. L,ate Cainozoic. 
Reef-Reck. Malekula, New Hebrides. 
{Coll. by Dr. D. Mawson). 

fig. 49.— Thin Slices of "White 
Coal" or "Tasmanite," showing 
crushed Megaspores. 

X 28. Carbopermian. I,atrobe, 

{F.C. Cell.) 

are generally referred to under the head of Cannel 
Coals. The " white coal" or Tasmanite of the Mer- 
sey Basin in Tasmania is an example of an impure 
spore coal with a sandy matrix (Fig. 49). 

The Kerosene Shale of New South Wales is related 
to the Torhanite of Scotland and Central France. It 

Fig. 50— Thin Slice of 
" Kerosene Shale." 

X 28. Carbopermian. 
Hartley, New South Wales. 
{F.C. Coll.) 

Pig. 51.— Bone Bed, with Fish and 
Reptilian Remains. 

About Y 2 nat. size. (Rhsetic). 
Aust Cliff, Gloucestershire, Kngland. 
Wat. Mus. Coll). 


occurs in lenticular beds between the bituminous 
coal. It is a very important deposit, commercially 
speaking, for it yields kerosene oil, and is also used 
for the manufacture of gas. The rock is composed 
of myriads of little cell-bodies, referred to as Reins- 
chia, and first supposed to be allied to the freshwater 
alga, Volvox; but this has lately been questioned, and 
an alternative view is that they may be the mega- 
spores of club-mosses (Fig. 50). 

The coals of Jurassic age in Australia are derived 
from the remains of coniferous trees and ferns; and 
some beautiful examples of these plants may often 
be found in the hardened clay or shale associated 
with the coal seams. 

The Brown Coals of Cainozoic or Tertiary age in 
Australia are still but little advanced from the early 
stage, lignite. The leaves found in them are more or 
less like the present types of the flora. The wood is 
found to be of the Cypress type (Cupressinoxylon). 
In New Zealand, however, important deposits of coal 
of a more bituminous nature occur in the Oligocene 
of Westport and the Grey River Valley, in the Nelson 

BONE BEDS.— The bones and excreta of fish and 
reptiles form considerable deposits in some of the 
sedimentary formations; especially those partly 
under the influence of land or swamp conditions. 
They constitute a kind of conglomerate in which are 
found bone-fragments and teeth (Fig. 51). These 
bone-beds are usually rich in phosphates, and are 
consequently valuable as a source of manure. The 
Miocene bone-bed with fish teeth at Florida, U.S.A., 


is a notable example. The nodule bed of the Vic- 
torian Cainozoics contains an assemblage of bones of 
cetaceans (whales, etc.). 

BONE BRECCIAS.— These are usually formed of 
the remains of the larger mammals, and consist of a 
consolidated mass of fragments of bones and teeth 
embedded in a calcareous matrix. Bone-breccias are 
of frequent occurrence on the floors of caves which 

Fig. 52— Bone Breccia, with remains of Marsupials. 

About Yx nat. size. Pleistocene. 
Iyimeburners Point, Geelong - , Victoria. {Nat. Mus. Coll.) 

had formerly been the resort of carnivorous animals, 
and into which they dragged their prey. The sur- 
face water percolating through the overlying cal- 
careous strata dissolved a certain amount of lime, 
and this was re-deposited on the animal remains lying 
scattered over the cave floor. A deposit so formed 
constitutes a stalagmite or floor encrustation. As 
examples of bone-breccias we may refer to the lime- 
stone at Limeburners Point, Oeelong (Fig. 52) ; and 
the stalagmitic deposits of the Buchan Caves. 



IRONSTONE.— Rocks formed almost entirely of 
limonite (hydrated peroxide of iron) are often due to 
the agency of unicellular plants known as diatoms, 
which separate the iron from water, and deposit it 
as hydrous peroxide of iron within their siliceous 
skeletons. In Norway and Sweden there are large 
and important deposits of bog iron-ore, which have 
presumably been formed in the beds of lakes. 

Clay ironstone nodules (sphaerosiderite) have 
generally been formed as accretions around some 






Fig. 53. 
Cainozoic Ironstone with Leaves (Banksia ? marginata, Cavanilles). 

Slightly enlarged. Below Wannon Falls, Redruth, Victoria. 


decaying organic body. Many clay ironstone nodules, 
when broken open, reveal a fossil within, such as a 
coprolitic body, fern frond, fir-cone, shell or fish. 

Oolitic ironstones are composed of minute granules 
which may have originally been calcareous grains, 
formed by a primitive plant or alga, but since re- 
placed by iron oxide or carbonate. 

The Tertiary ironstone of western Victoria is found 
to contain leaves, which were washed into lakes and 
swamps (Fig. 53) ; and the ferruginous groundmass 
may have been originally due to the presence of 
diatoms, though this yet remains to be proved. 




Cambrian Plants. — 

The oldest Australian plant-remains belong to the 
genus Girvanella. This curious little tubular unicel- 
lular organism, once thought to be a foraminifer, 
shows most affinity with the blue-green algae (Cyano- 
phyceae), an important type of plant even now form- 
ing calcareous deposits such as the calcareous grains 
on the shores of the Salt Lake, Utah, and the pea-grit 
of the Carlsbad hot springs. Girvanella problema- 
tica occurs in the Lower Cambrian limestones of 
South Australia, at Ardrossan and elsewhere. 

Silurian Plants. — 

Amongst Silurian plants may be mentioned the 
doubtful sea-weeds known as Bythotrephis. Their 
branch-like impressions are fairly common in the 
mudstones of Silurian age found in and around Mel- 
bourne. They generally occur in association with 
shallow-water marine shells and Crustacea of that 

The genus Girvanella before mentioned is also 
found in the Silurian (Yeringian) of Lily dale and 
the Tyers River limestone, Victoria (Fig. 54). 




Fig. 54.— Section through pellet of Girvanella conferta, Chapm 
X 35. From the Silurian (Yeringian) limestone of Tyers 

River, Gippsland, Victoria. {Nat. Mus. Coll.) 

Haliserites is a primitive plant of the type of the 
«3lub-mosses so common in the rocks of the Carboni- 
ferous period. This genus is found in some abund- 
ance in the Yeringian stage of the Silurian in Gipps- 
land (Fig. 55). 


(Approximate dimensions in fractions). 

A— Bythotrephis tenuis, J. Hall. Silurian. Victoria. 

B— Haliserites Dechenianus, Goppert. Silurian. Victoria. 

C — Cordaites australis, McCoy. Upper Devonian. Victoria. 

D— Sphenopteris iguanensis, McCoy. Upper Devonian. Victoria. 

K— Glossopteris Browniana, Brongniart. Carbopermian. N.S.W. 


be o 

ai .2 w « S b 

Is | 5 | 3 

U- tt '' 




Devonian and Carboniferous Plants. — 

Plant-life was not abundant, however, until Upper 
Devonian and Carboniferous times. In the rocks 
of these periods we meet with the large strap-shaped 
leaves of Cordaites and a fern, Sphenopteris, in the 
first-named series ; and the widely distributed Lepido- 
dendron with its handsome lozenge-scarred stems in 
the later series (Fig. 56). Cordaites has been found 
in Victoria in the Iguana Creek beds (Upper 
Devonian), and it also probably occurs at the same 
horizon at Nungatta, New South Wales. Lepidoden- 
dron occurs in the Lower Carboniferous sandstone of 
Victoria and Queensland (Fig. 57) : in New South 
Wales it is found at Mt. Lambie, Goonoo, Tamworth 
and Copeland in beds generally regarded as Upper 


A — Rhacopteris inaequilatera, Goppert sp. Up. Carboniferous. 
Stroud, New South Wales. {After Feistmantet) . 

B — Gangamopteris spatulata, McCoy. Carbopermian. Bacchus 
Marsh, Victoria. 


Devonian. Both of these plants are typical of Car- 
boniferous (Coal Measure) beds in Europe and 
North America. The fern Rhacopteris is characteris- 
tic of Upper Carboniferous shales and sandstones near 
Stroud, and other localities in New South "Wales as 
well as in Queensland (Fig. 58). These beds yield 
a few inferior seams of coal. Girvanella is again 
seen in the oolitic limestones of Carboniferous age in 
Queensland and New South Wales. 

Carbopermian Plants. — 

The higher division of the Australian Carboni- 
ferous usually spoken of as the Permocarboniferous, 
and here designated the Carbopermian (see Foot- 
note 2, page 48), is typified by a sudden accession of 
plant forms, chiefly belonging to ferns of the Glossop- 
teris type. The Ungulate or tongue-shaped fronds of 
this genus, with their characteristic reticulate vena- 
tion, are often found entirely covering the slabs of 
shale intercalated with the coal seams of New South 
Wales; and it is also a common fossil in Tasmania 
and Western Australia. The allied form, Gang- 
amopteris, which is distinguished from Glossopteris 
by having no definite midrib, is found in beds of the 
same age in Victoria, New South Wales, and Tas- 
mania. These plant remains are also found in 
India, South Africa, South America and the Falk- 
land Islands. This wide distribution of such 
ancient ferns indicates that those now isolated land- 
surfaces were once connected, forming an extensive 
continent named by Prof. Suess " Grondwana-Land, " 
from the Gondwana district in India (Fig. 59). 




Triassic Plants. — 

The widely distributed pinnate fern known as 
Thinnfeldia is first found in the Trias; in the Narra- 
been shales near Manly, and the Hawksbury sand- 
stone at Mount Victoria, New South Wales. It is 
also a common fossil of the Jurassic of South Gripps- 
land, and other parts of Victoria. The grass-like 
leaves of Phoenicopsis are frequently met with in 
Triassic strata, as in the upper series at Bald Hill, 
Bacchus Marsh, and also in Tasmania. The large 
Banana-palm-like leaves of Taeniopteris (Macro- 
taeniopteris) are common to the Triassic and Lower 
Jurassic beds of India: they are also met with in 
New Zealand, and in the upper beds at Bald Hill, 
Bacchus Marsh. 


A — Thinnfeldia odontopteroides. Morris sp. Trias. N.S.Wales. 
B— Cladophlebis denticulata, Brongn. sp. var, australis, Morr. 

Jurassic, Victoria. 
C— Taeniopteris spatulata, McClell. var. Daintreei, McCoy. Jurassic, 

D— Brachyphyllum gippslandicum, McCoy. Jurassic. Victoria 
K— Ginkgo robusta, McCoy. Jurassic, Victoria. 


Jurassic Plants. — 

The Jurassic flora of Australasia is very prolific 
in plant forms. These range from liverworts and 
horse-tails to ferns and conifers. The commonest 
ferns were Cladophlebis, Sphenopteris, Thinnfeldia 
and Taeniopteris. The conifers are represented by 
Araucarites (cone-scales, leaves and fruits), Palissya 
and Brachyphylhtm (Fig. 60). The Ginkgo or 
Maiden-hair tree, which is still living in China and 
Japan, and also as a cultivated plant, was extremely 
abundant in Jurassic times, accompanied by the 
related genus, Baiera, having more deeply incised 
leaves; both genera occur in the Jurassic of S. 
Oippsland, Victoria, and in Queensland* The 
Jurassic flora of Australasia is in many res- 
pects like that of the Yorkshire coast near Scar- 
borough. In New Zealand this flora is represented 
in the Mataura series, in which there are many forms 
identical with those of the Australian Jurassic, and 
even of India. 

Cretaceous Plants. — 

An upper Cretaceous fern, ( ? ) Didymosorus 
gleichenioides , is found in the sandstones of the Croy- 
don Gold-field, North Queensland. 

Plants of the Cainozoic. — Balcombian Stage. — 

The older part of the Cainozoic series in Austra- 
lasia may be referred to the Oligocene. These are 
marine beds with occasional, thick seams of lignite, 
and sometimes of pipe-clay with leaves, the evidence 
of river influence in the immediate neighbourhood. 
The fossil wood in the lignite beds appears to be a 
Cupressinoxylon or Cypress wood. Leaves referable 



to plants living at the present day are also found 
in certain clays, as at Mornington, containing 
Eucalyptus precoriacea and a species of Podocarpus. 
Miocene Leaf-beds. — Janjukian Stage. — 

Later Cainozoic deposits, evidently accumulated in 
lakes, and sometimes ferruginous, may be referred to 
the Miocene. They are comparable in age with the 


A— Cinnamomum polymorphoides McCoy. Cainozoic. Victoria. 
B— I^aurus werribeensis, McCoy. Cainozoic. Victoria. 
C— Banksia Campbelli. Ettingsh. Cainozoic. Vegetable Creek, N.S.W. 
D— Fagus Risdoniana, Kttingsh. Cainozoic. Tasmania. 
E— Spondylostrobus Smythi, Mueller. Cainozoic. (Deep I^eads), 

Janjukian marine beds of Spring Creek and Waurn 
Ponds in Victoria. These occur far inland and 
occupy distinct basins, as at the Wannon, Bacchus 
Marsh (Maddingly), and Pitfield Plains. Leaf -beds 
of this age occur also on the Otway coast, Victoria, 
containing the genera Coprosrnaephyllurn, Persoonia 
and Phyllocladus. In all probability the Dalton and 


Gunning leaf -beds of New South Wales belong here. 
Examples of the genera found in beds of this age 
are Eucalyptus (a species near E. amygdalina) ? 
Banksia or Native Honeysuckle, Cinnamomum or 
Cinnamon, Laurus or Laurel, and Fagus (Notofagus) 
or Beech (Fig. 61). In the leaf -beds covered by the 
older basalt on the Dargo High Plains, Gippsland, 
leaves of the Ginkgo Murrayana occur. 

In South Australia several occurrences of leaf beds 
have been recorded, containing similar species to 
those found in the Cainozoic of Dalton and Vegetable 
Creek, New South Wales. For example, Magnolia 
Brownii occurs at Lake Frome, Bombax Sturtii and 
Eucalyptus Mitchelli at Elizabeth Eiver, and Apocy- 
nophyllum Mackinlayi at Arcoona. 

Fruits of the "Deep Leads/ '— 

The Deep Leads of Victoria, New South Wales 
and Tasmania probably begin to date from the period 
just named, for they seem to be contemporaneous 
with the "Older Gold Drift" of Victoria; a deposit 
sometimes containing a marine fauna of Janjukian 
age. This upland river system persisted into Lower 
Pliocene times, and their buried silts yield many 
fruits, of types not now found in Australia, such as 
Platycoila, Penteune and Pleioclinis, along with 
Capr essus ( Spondylostrobus) and Eucalyptus of the 
existing flora (Fig. 62). 

Pleistocene Plants. — 

The Pleistocene volcanic tuffs of Mount Gambier 
have been shown to contain fronds of the living Pteris 
(Pteridium) aquilina or Bracken fern, and a Bank- 
sia in every way comparable with B. marginata, a 



species of the Native Honeysuckle still living in the 
same district. 

The siliceous valves of freshwater diatoms consti- 
tute the infusorial earths of Victoria, Queensland, 

. " 

£? " ; - 

/ ■ ■ • y 

^fffflf^ ' fl|fll»- ^1 

IT ;/■: .-■; # 




Fig. 62.— Leaves of a Fossil Eucalyptus. (E. pluti, McCoy). 

About Ya, nat. size. From the Cainozoic Deep I,eads, Daylesford, 
Victoria. {Nat. Mus. Coll.) 

New South Wales and New Zealand. The common- 
est genera met with are Melosira, Navicula, Cy rubella 
{or Cocconema), Synedra, Tabellaria, Stauroneis and 


Oomph one ma. They are, generally speaking, of 
Pleistocene age, as they are often found filling hol- 
lows in the newer basalt flows. In Victoria diatoma- 
ceous earths are found at Talbot (See Fig. 42), Sebas- 
topol and Lancefield ; in Queensland, at Pine Creek ; 
in New South "Wales, at Cooma, Barraba, and the 
Richmond River ; and in New T Zealand at Pakaraka, 
Bay of Islands. In the latter country there is also 
a marine diatomaceous rock in the Oamaru Series, of 
Miocene age. 


Girvdnella problematica, Nicholson and Etheridge. Cam- 
brian: S. Australia. 

Bythotrephis tenuis, J. Hall. Silurian: Victoria. 

Haliserites Dechenianus, Goppert sp. Silurian and Devonian: 

Gordaites australis, McCoy. Upper Devonian: Victoria. 

Lepidodendron australe, McCoy. Lower Carboniferous: Vic- 
toria and Queensland. Up. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Rhacopteris inaeguilatera, Goppert sp. Carboniferous: New 
South Wales. 

Glossopteris Browniana, Brongniart. Carbopermian : New 
South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and W. Australia. 

Gangamopteris spatulata, McCoy. Carbopermian: Victoria, 
New South Wales and Tasmania. 

Thinnfeldia odontopteroides, Morris sp. Triassic: New South 
Wales. Jurassic: Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania. 

Gladophlebis denticulata. Brongn. sp., var. australis, Morris. 
Jurassic: Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tas- 
mania and New Zealand. 

Taeniopteris spatulata, McClelland. Jurassic: Queensland,. 
New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania. 

(?) Didymosorus gleichenioides, Etheridge fil. Upper Creta- 
ceous : Queensland. 

Eucalyptus precoriacea, Deane. Oligocene: Victoria. 

Eucalyptus, Banksia, Ginnamomum, Laurus and Fagus. Mio- 
cene: Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. 

Spondylostrobus Smythi, von Mueller. (Fruits and wood)- 
Lower Pliocene: Victoria and Tasmania. 


J*teris (Pteridiwm ) aquilina, Linne, and Banksia cf. mar- 
ginata, Oavanilles. Pleistocene: Victoria and South Aus- 


Oirvanella. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Trans. R. Soc. S. Australia, 

vol. XIII. 1890, pp. 19, 20. Etheridge, R. and Card, G. 

Geol. Surv. Queensland, Bull. No. 12, 1900, pp. 26, 27, 
32. Chapman, F. Rep. Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Ade- 
laide Meeting (1907), 1908, p. 337. 
Devonian Ferns and Cordaites. — McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict. 

Dec. V., 1876, p. 21. Dun, W. S. Rec. Geol. Surv. New 

South Wales, vol. V. pt. 3, 1897, p. 117. 
Lepidodendron.— McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. I. 1874, 

p. 37. Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Geol. Surv, New South 

Wales, vol. II., pt. 3, 1891, p. 119. Idem, Geol. and 

Pal. Queensland, 1892, p. 196. 
Carboniferous Fungi. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. Surv. W.A., 

Bull, No. 10, 1903, pp. 25-31. 
Carboniferous Ferns. — Dun, W. S. Rec. Geol. Surv. New 

South Wales, vol. VIII. pt. 2, 1905, pp. 157-161, pis. 

•Glossopteris. — Feistmantel, O. Mem. Geol. Surv. New South 

Wales, Pal. No. 3, 1890. Arber, N. Cat. Foss. Plants, 

Glossopteris Flora, Brit. Mus., 1905. 
Oangamopteris. — McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. II. 1875, 

p. 11. 
Jurassic Plants.— McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vic, Dec. II. 1875, 

p. 15. Woods, T. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Whales, 

vol. VIII. pt. I. 1883, p. 37. Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. 

Pal. Queensland, 1892, p. 314. Dun, W. S. (Taeniop- 

teris), Rep. Austr. Asso. Adv. Sci., Sydnev, 1898, pp. 

384-400. Seward, A. C. Rec. Geol. Surv. Vic, vol. I. 

Vt. 3, 1904; Chapman, F. Ibid., vol II. pt. 4, 1908; vol. 

III., pt. 1, 1909. Dun, W. S. Rec. Geol. Surv. New 

South Wales, vol. VIII. pt. 4, 1909, p. 311. 
'Older Cainozoic Plants. — McCov, F. Prod. Pal. Vic, Dec. 

IV. 1876, p. 31. Ettingshausen, C. von. Mem. Geol. 

Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 2, 1888. Idem, Trans. 

New Zealand Inst., vol. XXIII. (1890), 1891, p. 237. 

Deane, H. Rec. Ceol. Surv. Vict., vol. I. pt. 1, 1902, pp. 

15, 20. 
Lower Pliocene Deep Leads. — McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., 

Dec. IV. 1876, p. 29. Mueller, F. von. Geol. Surv. Vic, 

New Veg. Foss., 1874 and 1883. 
Pleistocene and other Diatom Earths. — Card, G. W. and Dun, 

W. 8., Rec Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. V. pt. 3, 

1897, p. 128. 



Protozoans, Their Structure. — 

The animals forming the sub-kingdom PROTOZOA 
("lowliest animals"), are unicellular (one-celled), as 
distinguished from all the succeeding higher groups, 
which are known as the METAZOA ("animals be- 
yond"). The former group, Protozoa, have all 
their functions performed by means of a simple cell, 
any additions to the cell-unit merely forming a repe- 
titional or aggregated cell-structure. A familiar 
example of such occurs in pond-life, in the Amoeba, 
a form which is not found fossil on account of the 
absence of any hard parts or covering capable of 
preservation. Foraminifera and Radiolaria, how- 
ever, have such hard parts, and are frequently found 

Foraminifera: Their Habitats. — 

The FORAMINIFERA are a group which, al- 
though essentially one-celled, have the protoplasmic 
body often numerously segmented. The shell or 
test formed upon, and enclosing the jelly-like sar- 
code, may consist either of carbonate of lime, 
cemented sand-grains, or a sub-calcareous or chitin- 
ous (horny) covering. The Foraminifera, with very 
few exceptions, as Mikrogroniia, Lieberkuehnia, and 
some forms of Gromia, are all marine in habit. Some 



genera, however, as Miliolina, Rotalia and Nonionina,. 
affect brackish water conditions. 

Since Foraminifera are of so lowly a grade in the 
animal kingdom, we may naturally expect to find 
their remains in the oldest known rocks that show 
any evidence of life. They are, indeed, first seen in 
rocks of Cambria]i age, although they have not yet 
been detected there in Australian strata. 

Cambrian Foraminifera. — 

In parts of Siberia and in the Baltic Provinces, 
both Cambrian and Ordovician rocks contain numer- 
ous glauconite casts of Foraminifera, generally of 
the Globigerina type of shell. In England some 
Middle Cambrian rocks of Shropshire are filled with 
tiny exquisitely preserved spiral shells belonging to 
the genus Spirillinq, in which all the characters of 
the test are seen as clearly as in the specimens picked 
out of shore-sand at the present day. 
Silurian Foraminifera. — 

The Silurian rocks in all countries are very poor in 
foramini feral shells, only occasional examples being 
found. In rocks of this age at Lily dale, Victoria, 
the genus Ammodiscns, with fine sandy, coiled tests, 
is found in the Cave Hill Limestone. 

So far as known, hardly any forms of this group 
occur in Devonian strata, although some ill-defined 
shells have been found in the Eifel, Germany. 

Carboniferous Foraminifera. — 

The Carboniferous rocks in many parts of the 
world yield an abundant foraminiferal fauna. Such,, 
for instance, are the Saccammina and Endothyra 
Limestones of the North of England and the North 



of Ireland. The Australian rocks of this age have 
not afforded any examples of the group, since they 
are mainly of estuarine or freshwater origin. 

Carbopermian Foraminifera.— 

In Australia, as at Pokolbin, New South Wales, in 
the Mersey River district, Tasmania, and in the Irwin 
River district, "Western Australia, the Permian rocks, 
or " Permocarbonif erous ? ' as they are generally 
called, often contain beds of impure limestone 
crowded with the chalky white tests of Nubecularia: 
other interesting genera occur at the first named 
locality as Pelosina, Hyperammina, Haplophrag- 
mium, Placopsilina, Lituola, Thurammina, Ammodis- 
cus, Stacheia, Monogenerina, Valvulina, Bulimina, 


A— JNubecularia sttphensi llowchin. Carbopermian. N S.W. 
B— Frondicularia woodwardi. Howchin. Carbopermian. N.S.W. 
C— Geinitzina triangularis, Chapman and Howchin. Carbopermian. 

D— Valvulina plicata, Brady. Carbopermian. West Australia. 
E — Vaginulina intumescens, Reuss. Jurassic. West Austra;ia. 
F— Flabellina dilatata, Wisniowski. Jurassic. West Australia. 
G— Marginulina solida, Terquem. Jurassic. West Australia. 
H— Frondiculaiia gaultina, Reuss. Cretaceous. West Australia. 


(l)Plenrostomella, Lagena, Nodosaria, Frondicularia, 
Geinitzina, Lunucammina, Marginulina, Vaginulina, 
Anomalina and Truncatulina. The sandy matrix of 
certain Glossopteris leaf-beds in the Collie Coal mea- 
sures in W. Australia have yielded some dwarfed 
examples belonging to the genera Bulimina, Endo- 
thyra, Valvulina, Truncatulina and Pulvinulina; 
whilst in the Irwin River district similar beds contain 
Nodosaria and Frondicularia (Fig. 63). 

Triassic Foraminifera. — 

The Triassic and Rhaetic clays of Europe occasion- 
ally show traces of foraminifera! shells, probably of 
estuarine habitat, as do the Wianamatta beds of New 
South Wales, which also belong to the Triassic 
epoch. The Australian representatives are placed 
in the genera Nubecularia, Haplophragmium, Endo- 
thyra, Discorbina, Truncatulina, and Pulvinulina. 
These shells are diminutive even for foraminifera, 
and their starved condition indicates uncongenial 
Jurassic Foraminifera. — 

The Jurassic limestones of Western Australia, at 
Geraldton, contain many species of Foraminifera, 
principally belonging to the spirally coiled and slip- 
per-shaped Crist ellariae. Other genera present are 
Haplophragmium, Textularia, Bulimina, Flabellina, 
Marginulina, Vaginulina, Polymorphina, Discorbina, 
and Truncatulina. 

Cretaceous Foraminifera. — 

In the Lower Cretaceous rocks known as the Rolling 
Downs Formation in Queensland, shells of the Fora- 
minifera are found in some abundance at Wollum- 
billa. They are represented chiefly by Crist ellaria 
and Polymorphina. 



Fig. 64 — Structure in Lepidocyclina. 

A — Vertical section through test of :L,epidocycliiia marginata, 

Michelotti sp. : showing the equatorial chambers (eq. c ) and 

the lateral chambers (I.e.) 
B — Section through the median disc, showing the hexagonal and 

ogive chambers. X 18. 

Cainozoic (Janjukian). Batesford, near Geelong, Victoria. 

(F.C Coll.) 

Cainozoic Foraminifera. — 

The Cainozoic strata in all parts of the world are 
very rich in Foraminifera, and the genera, and even 
many species are similar to those now found living. 
Certain types, how r ever, had a restricted range, and 
are therefore useful as indicators of age. Such are 
the Nummulites and the Orbitoides of the Eocene and 
the Oligocene of Europe, India and the West Indies; 
and the Lepidocyclinae of the Miocene of Europe, 
Indis, Japan and Australia (Fig. 64). 



The genus Lcpidocyclina is typically represented in 
the Batesford beds near Geelong, Victoria by L. tour- 
noucri, a fossil of the Burdigalian stage (Middle 
Miocene) in Europe, as well as by L. marginata. A 
limestone with large, well-preserved tests of the same 
genus, and belonging to a slightly lower horizon in 
the Miocene has lately been discovered in Papua. 

Some of the commoner Foraminifera found in the 
Cainozoic beds of Southern Australia are — Miliolina 
vulgaris, Textularia gibbosa, Nodosaria affinis,, Poly- 
morphina elegantissima, Truncatulina iingeriana and 
Amphistegina lessonii (Fig. 65). The first-named 
has a chalky or porcellanous shell ; the second a sandy 
test ; the third and fourth glassy or hyaline shells 
with excessively fine tubules; the fifth a glassy shell 


A— Miliolina vulgaris, d'Orb. sp. Oligocene-Recent. Vict, and S. A. 
B— Textularia gibbosa, d'Orb. Oligocene and Miocene Vict. & S.A. 
C — Nodosaria affinis, d'Orb. Oligocene. Victoria. 
D— Polymorphina elegantissima. P. and J. Oligocene-Recent. Vict. 

and vS.A. 
E — Truncatulina ungeriana, d'Orb. sp. Oligocene-Recent. Vict. &S.A. 
F— Amphistegina vulgaris, d'Orb. Oligocene-Iy. Pliocene. Vict. & S.A. 


with numerous surface punctations due to coarser 
tubules than usual in the shell-walls; whilst the last- 
named has a smooth, lenticular shell, also hyaline, 
and occurring in such abundance as often to consti- 
tute a foraminiferal rock in itself. 

Pleistocene Foraminifera. — 

The estuarine deposits of Pleistocene age in 
southern Australia often contain innumerable shells 
of Miliolina, Rotalia and Polystomella. One thin 
seam of sandy clay struck by the bores in the Vic- 
torian Mallee consists almost entirely of the shells 
of the shallow-water and estuarine species, Rotalia 

Radiolaria: Their Structure. — 

The organisms belonging to the order RADIO- 
LARIA are microscopic, and they are all of marine 
habitat. The body of a radiolarian consists of a 
central mass of protoplasm enclosed in a membranous 
capsule, and contains the nuclei, vacuoles, granules 
and fat globules; whilst outside is a jelly-like por- 
tion which throws off pseudopodia or thin radiating 
threads. The skeleton of Radiolaria is either chit- 
inous or composed of clear, glassy silica, and is often 
of exquisitely ornamental and regular form. 

Habitat. — 

These tiny organism generally live in the open 
ocean at various depths, and sinking to the bottom, 
sometimes as deep as 2,000 to 4,000 fathoms, they 
form an ooze or mud. 


Subdivisions. — 

Radiolaria are divided into the four legions or 
orders, — Acantharia, Spumellaria, Nasselaria and 
Phaeodaria : only the second and third groups 
are found fossil. The Spumellarians are spherical, 
ellipsoidal, or disc-shaped, and the Nasselarians coni- 
cal or helmet-shaped. 
Cambrian Radiolaria. — 

Certain cherts or hard, siliceous rocks of the palaeo- 
zoic era are often crowded with the remains of 
Radiolaria, giving the rock a spotted appearance, 
(See antea, Fig. 38). Some of the genera thus found 
are identical with those living at the present day, 
whilst others are peculiar to those old sediments. 
In Australia, remains of their siliceous shells have 
been found in cherts of Lower Cambrian age near 
Adelaide. These have been provisionally referred 
to the genera Carposphaera and Cenellipsis (Fig. 66). 
Ordovician Radiolaria. — 

Radiolaria have been detected in the Lower Ordo- 
vician rocks of Victoria, in beds associated with the 
Graptolite slates of this series. In New South 
Wales Radiolarian remains are found in the cherts 
and slates of Upper Ordovician age at Cooma and 
Silurian Radiolaria. — 

The Silurian black cherts of the Jenolan Caves in 
New South Wales contain casts of Radiolaria. 
Devonian Radiolaria. — 

The Lower Devonian red jaspers of Bingera and 
Barraba in New South Wales have afforded some 
casts of Radiolaria, resembling Carposphaera and 



A— Aff. Carposphaera (after David and Howchin). Cambrian. 

Brighton, SA. 
B— Cenosphaera affinis, Hinde. Mid. Devonian. Tamworth, N.S.W. 
C— Amphibrachium truncatum, Hinde. Up. Cretaceous. Pt. Darwin. 
D— Dictyomitra triangularis, Hinde. Up. Cretaceous. Pt. Darwin. 

The large number of fifty-three species have been 
found in the radiolarian rocks of Middle Devonian 
age at Tamworth in New South Wales (Fig. 66). 
These have been referred to twenty-nine genera 
comprising amongst others, Cenosphaera, Xipho- 
sphaera, Staurolonche, Heliospliaera, Acanthosphaera 
and Spongodiscus. 

Cretaceous Radiolaria. — 

Although certain silicified rocks in the Jurassic in 
Europe have furnished a large series of Radiolaria, 
the Australian marine limestones of this age have not 
yielded any of their remains up to the present. They 
have been found, however, in the Lower Cretaceous 
of Queensland, and in the (?) Upper Cretaceous of 
Port Darwin, N. Australia. The Radiolaria from 
the latter locality belong to the suborders Prunoidea, 


Discoidea and Cyrtoidea (Fig. 66). The rock which 
contains these minute fossils is stated to be eaten 
by the natives for medicinal purposes. As its composi- 
tion is almost pure silica, its efficacy in such cases 
must be more imaginary than real. 

Cainozoic Radiolaria. — 

Cainozoic rocks of Pliocene age, composed entirely 
of Radiolaria, occur at Barbados in the West Indies. 
No Cainozoic Radiolaria, however, have been found 
either in Australia or New Zealand up to the present 



JSfubecularia stephensi, Howchin. Carbopermian : Tasmania 
and New South Wales. 

Frondicularia woodwardi, Howchin. Carbopermian: W. Aus- 
tralia and New South Wales. 

Oeinitzina triangularis, Chapm. & Howchin. Carbopermian: 
New South Wales. 

Pulvinulina insignis, Chapman. Trias (Wianamatta Series) : 
New South Wales. 

Marginulina solida, Terquem. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Flabellina dilatata, Wisniowski. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Vaginulina striata, d'Orbigny. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 

Truncatulina lobatula, W. and J. sp. Lower Cretaceous: 

Miliolina vulgaris, d'Orb. sp. Cainozoic: Victoria and S. 

Textularia gibbosa, d'Orb. Cainozoic: Victoria and S. Aus- 

ISfodosaria affinis, d'Orb. Cainozoic: Victoria and S. Australia. 

Polymorphina elegantissima, Parker and Jones. Cainozoic: 
Victoria, Tasmania, and S. Australia. 

Truncatulina unreriana, d'Orb. sp. Cainozoic: Victoria, 
King Island, and S. Australia. 


Amphisiegina lessonii, d'Orb. Cainozoic: Victoria and 8. 

Lepidocyclina martini, Sclilumberger. Cainozoic (Balcom- 
bian and Janjukian) : Victoria. 

L. tournoueri, Lemoine and Douville. Cainozoic (Junjukian) : 

Cycloclypeus pustulosus, Chapman. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : 

Fabularia howchini, Schlumberger. Cainozoic (Kalimnan) : 

Hauerina intermedia, Howcliin. Cainozoic (Kalimnan) : Vic- 

Rotalia beccarii, Linne sp. Pleistocene: Victoria and S. Aus- 

Polystomella striatopunctata, Fichtel and Moll sp. Pleisto- 
cene: Victoria and S. Australia. 


(?) Carposphaera sp. Lower Cambrian: South Australia. 

(?) Cenellipsis sp. Lower Cambrian: South Australia. 

Cenosphaera affinis, Hinde. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Staurolcnche davidi, Hinde. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Amphihrachium truncatum, Hinde. Upper Cretaceous: JNorth- 
ern Territory. 

Dictyomitra triangularis, Hinde. Upper Cretaceous: North- 
ern Territory. 


Carbopermian. — Howchin, W. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 

XIX. 1895; pp. 194-198. Chapman, F. and Howchin, 

W. Mem. Geol. Surv. New South W r ales, Pal. No. 14, 1905. 

Chapman, F. Bull. Geol. Surv. W. Austr., No. 27, 1907, 

pp. 15-18. 
Trias. — Chapman, F. Rec. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. 

VIII. pt. 4, 1909, pp. 336-339. 
Jurassic. — Chapman, F. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. XVI. 

(N.S.), pt. II., 1904, pp. 186-199. 
Cretaceous. — Moore, C. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. XXVI. 

1870, pp. 239 and 242. Howchin, W. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

S. Austr., vol. VIII. 1886, pp. 79-93. Idem, ibid., vol. 

XIX., 1895, pp. 198-200. Idem, Bull. Geol. Surv. W. 

Austr., No. 27, 1907, pp. 38-43. 


Cainozoic. — Howchin, W. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 
XII. 1889, pp. 1-20. Idem, ibid., vol. XIV. 1891, pp. 
350-356. Jensen, H. I. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South 
Wales, vol. XXIX. pt. 4, 1905, pp. 829-831. Goddard, 
E. J. and Jensen, H. I. ibid., vol. XXXII. pt. 2, 1907, 
pp. 308-318. Chapman, F. Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. 
Zool., vol. XXX. 1907, pp. 10-35. 

General. — Howchin, W. Rep. Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Ade- 
laide Meeting, 1893, pp. 348-373. 


Lower Cambrian. — David, T. W. E. and Howchin, W. Proc. 

Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. XXI. 1897, p. 571. 
Devonian. — David, T. W. E. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South 

Wales, vol. XXI 1897, pp. 553-570. Hinde, G. J. 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. LV. 1890, pp. 38-64. 
Upper Cretaceous. — Hinde, G. J. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soe., 

vol. XLIX. 1893, pp. 221-226. 




Characteristics of Sponges. — 

The Sponges are sometimes placed by themselves 
as a separate phylum, the Porifera. With the excep- 
tion of a few freshwater genera, they are 
of marine habit and to be found at all 
depths between low tide (littoral) and deep 
water (abyssal). Sponges are either fixed or 
lie loosely on the sea-floor. They possess no 
organs of locomotion, and have no distinct axis or 
lateral appendages. They exist by setting up cur- 
rents in the water whereby the latter is circulated 
through the system, carrying with it numerous food 
particles, their tissues being at the same time oxygen- 
ated. Their framework, in the siliceous and cal- 
careous sponges, is strengthened by a mineral skele- 
ton, wholly or partially capable of preservation as 
a fossil. 
Cambrian and Ordovician Sponges. — 

The oldest rocks in Australia containing the 
remains of Sponges are the Cambrian limestones of 
South Australia, at Ardrossan and elsewhere. Some 
of these sponge-remains are referred to the genus 
Protospongia, a member of the Hexactinellid group 
having 6-rayed skeletal elements. When complete, 



fig. 67. -PALAEOZOIC SPONGES, &c. 

A — Protospongia reticulata, T. S. Hall. IyOw. Ordovician. Bendigo. 
B— Receptaculites fergusoni, Chapm. Silurian. Wombat Creek, Vict. 
C— R. australis, Salter. (Section of wall, etched, after Eth. & Dun) 

Mid. Devonian. Co. Murray, N.S.W. 
D— Protopharetra scoulari, B)th. fil. Cambrian. S.A. 

the Protospongia has a cup- or funnel-shaped body, 
composed of large and small modified spicules, which 
form quadrate areas, often seen in isolated or aggre- 
gated patches on the weathered surface of the rock. 
Protospongia also occurs in the Lower Ordovician 
slates and shales of Lancefield (P. oilonga), and 
Bendigo (P. reticulata and P. cruciformis), in Vic- 
toria (Fig. 67 A). At St. David's, in South Wales, 
the genus is found in rocks of Middle Cambrian age. 
The South Australian limestones in which Proto- 
spongia occurs are usually placed in the Lower Cam- 

Another genus of Sponges, Hyalostelia, whose 
affinities are not very clear, occurs in the South Aus- 
tralian Cambrian at Curramulka. This type is 
represented by the long, slightly bent, rod-like 


spicules of the root-tuft, and the skeletal spicules with 
six rays, one of which is much elongated. 

Stephanella maccoyi is a Monactinellid sponge, 
found in the Lower Ordovician (Bendigo Series) of 
Bendigo, Victoria. 
Silurian Sponges. — 

Numerous Sponges of Silurian age are found in the 
neighbourhood of Yass, New South Wales, which 
belong to the Lithistid group, having irregular, 
knotty and branching spicules. These sponges 
resemble certain fossil fruits, generally like diminu- 
tive melons; their peculiar spicular structure, how- 
ever, is usually visible on the outside of the 
fossil, especially in weathered specimens. The com- 
monest genus is Carpospongia. 

Receptaculites : Silurian to Carboniferous. — 

In Upper Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous 
times the curious saucer- or funnel-shaped bodies 
known as Receptaculites must have been fairly abun- 
dant in Australia, judging by their frequent occur- 
rence as fossils. They are found as impressions or 
moulds and casts in some of the mudstones and 
limestones of Silurian age in Victoria, as at Loyola 
and Wombat Creek, in west and north-east Gripps- 
land respectively. In the Devonian limestones of 
New South Wales they occur at Fernbrook, near 
Mudgee, at the Goodradigbee River, and at Cavan, 
near Yass; also in beds of the same age in Victoria, 
at Bindi, and Buchan (Fig. 67, B.C.). Receptacu- 
lites also occur in the Star Beds of Upper Devonian 
or Lower Carboniferous age in Queensland, at Mount 
Wyatt. It will thus be seen that this genus has an 
extensive geological range. 


Carbopermian Sponges. — 

A Monactinellid Sponge, provisionally referred to 
Lasiocladia, has been described from the Gympie beds 
of the Rockhampton District, Queensland. Lasio- 
cladia, as well as the Hexactinellid Sponge Hyalo- 
stelia, occurs in the Carbopermian of New South 
Cretaceous Sponges. — 

No sponge-remains seem to occur above the Carbo- 
permian in Australia until we reach the Cretaceous 
rocks. In the Lower Cretaceous series in Queens- 
land a doubtful member of the Hexactinellid group is 
found, namely, Purisiphonia clarkei. In the Upper 
Cretaceous of the Darling Downs District pyritized 
Sponges occur which have been referred to the genus 
Siphonia, a member of the Lithistid group, well 
known in the Cretaceous of Europe. 

Cainozoic Sponges. — 

A white siliceous clay, supposed to be from a "Deep 
Lead/' in the Norseman district in Western Austra- 
lia, has proved to consist almost entirely of siliceous 
sponge-spicules, belonging to the Monactinellid, the 
Tetractinellid, the Lithistid, and the Hexactinellid 
groups (Fig. 69 A, B). The reference of the de- 
posit to a "deep lead" or alluvial deposit presents a 
difficulty, since these sponge-spicules represent 
moderately deep water marine forms. This deposit 
resembles in some respects the spicule-bearing rock of 
Oamaru, New Zealand, which is of Miocene age. 

In the Cainozoic beds of southern Australia 
Sponges, with calcareous skeletons are not at all un- 
common. The majority of these belong to the 


A — I^atrunculia sp. (after Hinde). Cainozoic. Deep L,ead, 

Norseman, W.A. 
B— Geodiasp. (after Hinde). Cainozoic. Deep I^ead, Norseman, W. A 
C — Ecionema newberyi. McCoy sp. Cainozoic. Boggy Creek, 

Gippsland. Vict. 
D—Plectroninia halli, Hinde. Cainozoic (Janjukian). Moorabool, Vict. 
E — Tretocalia pezica, Hinde. Cainozoic. Flinders, Vict. 


k^y < : : 

A— Cyathophyllum approximans, Chapm. Silurian (Yer). 

Gippsland, Vict. 
B — Favosites grandipora, Eth. fil. Silurian (Yer.). I^ilydale, Vict. 
C— Favosites grandipora, vertical section. Ditto. 
D — F. grandipora, transverse section. Ditto. 
E — Pleurodictyum megastomum, Dun. Iyilydale, Vict. 
F — Halysites peristephesicus, Eth. fil. Silurian. N.S.Wales. 
G— Heliolites interstincta, Wahl sp. (transv. sect ), Silurian. Vict. 



Lithonine section of the Calcispongiae, in which the 
spicules are regular, and not fixed together. Living 
examples of these sponges, closely related to the 
fossils, have been dredged from the Japanese Sea. 
The fossils are found mainly in the Janjukian, at Cur- 
lewis, in the Moorabool River limestones, and in the 
polyzoal rock of Flinders, all in Victoria. They 
belong to the genera Bactronella, Plectroninia and 
Tretocalia (Fig. 68, D and E). Some diminutive 
forms also occur in the older series, .the Balcombian, 
at Mornington, namely, Bactronella parvula. At 
Boggy Creek, near Sale, in Victoria, a Tetractinellid 
Sponge, Ecionema neivberyi, is found in the Jan- 
jukian marls; spicules of this form have also been 
noted from the clays of the Altona Bay coal-shaft 
(Fig. 68 C). 

The ARCHAEOCYATHINAE: an ancient class 
of organisms related both to the Sponges and the 

Archaeocyathinae in Cambrian Strata. — 

These curious remains have been lately made the 
subject of detailed research, and it is now con- 
cluded that they form a group probably ancestral 
both to the sponges and the corals. They are cal- 
careous, and generally cup-shaped or conical, often 
furnished at the pointed base with roots or strands 
for attachment to the surrounding reef. They have 
two walls, both the inner and the outer being per- 
forated like sponges. As in the corals, they 
are divided by transverse septa and these are 
also perforated. Certain of the genera as 

CORALS. 113 

Protopharetra (Fig. 67 D), Coscinocyathus, and 
Archaeocyathina, are common to the Cambrian 
of Sardinia and South Australia, whilst other 
genera of the class are also found in 
Siberia, China, Canada and the United States. A 
species of Protopharetra was recently detected in a 
pebble derived from the Cambrian limestone in the 
Antarctic, as far south as 85 deg. An Archaeocyath- 
ina limestone has also been found in situ from 
Shackleton's farthest south. 
CORALS (Class Anthozoa). 
Rugose Corals. — 

Many of the older types of Corals from the Palaeo- 
zoic rocks belong to the Tetracoralla (septa in mul- 
tiples of four), or Rugosa (i.e., with wrinkled 
exterior) . 
Ordovician Corals. — 

In Great Britain and North America Rugose 
Corals are found as early as Ordovician times, repre- 
sented by Streptelasma, Petraia, etc. In Australia 
they seem to first make their appearance in the 
Silurian period. 
Silurian Corals. — 

In rocks of Silurian age in Australia we find genera 
like Cyathophyllum (with single cups or compound 
coralla), Diphyphyllum, Try plasma and Rhizophyl- 
lum, the first-named often being very abundant. The 
compound corallum of Cyathophyllum approximans 
presents a very handsome appearance when cut 
transversely and polished. This coral is found in 
the Newer Silurian limestone in Victoria; it 
shows an alliance with C. mitchelli of the Middle 


Devonian of the Murrumbidgee River, New South 
Wales (Fig. 69 A). 

Silurian Hexacoralla. — 

It is, however, to the next group, the Hexacor- 
alla, with septa in multiples of six, twelve, and 
twenty-four, that we turn for the most varied and 
abundant types of Corals in Silurian times. The 
genus Favosites (Honey-comb Coral) is extremely 
abundant in Australian limestones (Fig. 69 B, C), 
such as those of Lilydale, Walhalla, and Waratah 
Bay in Victoria, and of Hatton's Corner and other 
localities near Yass, in New South Wales. Pleuro- 
dictyum is also a familiar type in the Australian 
Silurian, being one of the commonest corals in the 
Yeringian stage; although, strange to say, in Ger- 
many and N. America, it is typical of Devonian strata 
(Fig. 69 E). Pleurodictyum had a curious habit 
of growing, barnacle fashion, on the side of the 
column of the crinoids or sea-lilies which flourished 
in those times. Syringopora, with its funnel-shaped 
tabulae or floor partitions, is typical of many Aus- 
tralian limestones, as those from Lilydale, Victoria, 
and the Delegate River, New South Wales. Halysites 
(Chain Coral), with its neat strings of tubular and 
tabulated corallites joined together by their edges, is 
another striking Coral of the Silurian period (Fig. 
69 F). This and the earlier mentioned Syringo- 
pora, is by some authors regarded as belonging to 
the Alcyonarian Corals (typically with eight ten- 
tacles). Halysites is known from the limestones of 
the Mitta Mitta River, N.B. G-ippsland, Victoria; 
from the Molong and Canobolas districts in New 

COEALS. 115 

South Wales; from the Gordon River limestone in 
Tasmania; and from Chillagoe in Queensland. 
Abroad it is a well known type of Coral in the Wen- 
lockian of Gotland in Scandinavia, and Shropshire in 
England, as well as in the Niagara Limestone of the 
United States. 

Silurian Octocoralla. — 

Perhaps the most important of the Octocoralla is 
Heliolites ("Sunstone"), which is closely allied to 
the Blue Coral, Heliopora, a frequent constituent of 
our modern coral reefs. The genus Heliolites has a 
massive, calcareous corallum, bearing two kinds of 
pores or tubes, large (autopores) containing complete 
polyps, and small (siphonopores) containing the 
coenosarc or flesh of the colony. Both kinds of tubes 
are closely divided by tabulae, whilst the former are 
septate. Heliolites is of frequent occurrence in the 
Silurian limestones of New South Wales and Vic- 
toria (Fig. 69 G). 
Devonian Corals. — 

The Middle Devonian beds of Australia are chiefly 
limestones, such as the Buchan limestone, Victoria; 
the Burdekin Series, Queensland; and the Tam- 
worth limestone of New South Wales. These rocks, 
as a rule, are very fossiliferous, and the chief consti- 
tuent fossils are the Eugose and Perforate Corals. 
Campophyllum gregorii is a common form in the 
Buchan limestone (Fig. 70 A), as well as some large 
mushroom-shaped Favosites, as F. gothlandica and F. 
maltitabulata. Other genera which may be men- 
tioned as common to the Australian Middle Devonian 
rocks are, Cyathophylluni, Sanidophyllum and 




-'' -• y ~. " 7 I 

V* ' • • 7/.' 7 7* -•■ • ij 

■:■ ■ , , ■ 2. 


A— Oampophyllum gregorii, Kth. fil. Mid. Devonian. Buchan, Vict. 
B— Pachypora meridional is, Nich. & Kth. fil. Mid Devonian. Queens. 
C— Aulopora repens, Kn. & W. (after Hinde). Devonian. Kimberleyj I 

district, W.A. 
D— Zaphrentis culleni, Kth. fil. Carboniferous. New South Wales 
K — Trachypora wilkinsoni, Kth. fil. Carbopermian (Up. Marine Ser.) 

New South Wales. 
F— Stenopora crinita, I/msdale. Carbopermian (Up. Mar. Ser.) N.S.W. 

Spongophyllum, Heliolites is also found in lime- 
stones of this age in New South Wales and Queens- 

In the Burdekin Series (Middle Devonian) in 
Queensland we also find Cystiphyllum, Favosites 
gothlandica, and Pachypora meridionalis (Fig. 70 B), 
whilst in beds of the same age at Rough Range in 
Western Australia are found Aulopora repens (Fig. 
70 C), and another species of Pachypora, namely, P. 

Carbopermian Corals. — 

The only true Carboniferous marine fauna occur- 
ring in Australia, appears to be that of the Star Beds 
in Queensland, but so far no corals have been found. 

CORALS. 117 

The so-called Carboniferous of Western Australia 
may be regarded as Carbopermian or even of Per- 
mian age. The marine Carbopermian beds of New 
South Wales contain several genera of Corals belong- 
ing to the group Rugosa, as Zaphrentis (Fig. 70 D), 
Lophophyllam, and Campophyllum. Of the Tabu- 
late corals may be mentioned Trachypora wilkinsoni, 
very typical of the Upper Marine Series (Fig. 70 E) 
and Cladochonus. 

In the Gympie beds of the same system in Queens- 
land occur the following rugose corals, Zaphrentis 
profunda and a species of Cyathophyllum. 

In the Carbopermian of Western Australia the 
rugose corals are represented by Ample xus, Cyatho- 
phylhim, and Plerophyllum, which occur in rocks on 
the Gascoyne River. 

The imperfectly understood group of the 
Monticuliporoids, by some authors placed with 
the Polyzoa (Order Trepostomata), are well repre- 
sented in Australia: by the genus Stenopora (Fig. 
70 F). The corallum is a massive colony of long 
tubes set side by side and turned outwards, the polyp 
moving upwards in growth and cutting off the lower 
part of the tube by platforms like those in the 
tabulate corals. Some of the species of Stenopora, 
like S. tasmaniensis, of New South Wales and Tas- 
mania, are found alike in the Lower and Upper 
Marine Series. S. australis is confined to the Bowen 
River Coalfield of Queensland. Stenopora often 
attains a large size, the corallum reaching over a foot 
in length. 

Neither Jurassic or Cretaceous Corals have been 
found in Australasia, although elsewhere as in 



Europe and India, the representatives of modern 
corals are found in some abundance. 
Cainozoic Corals. — 

In Tertiary times the marine areas of southern 
Australia were the home of many typical solitary 
Corals of the group of the Hexacoralla. In the Bal- 
combian beds of Mornington, Victoria, for instance, 
we have genera such as Flabellam, Placotrochus, 


~ A — Klabellum victoriae, Duncan. Balcombian. Morning-ton, Vict. 
B— Placotrochus deltoideus, Dune. Balcombian. Muddy Creek, 

Hamilton. Vic. 
C— Balanophyllia seminuda, Dune. Balcombian. Muddy Creek, 

Hamilton, Vic. 
D — Stephanotrochus tatei, Dennant. Janjukian. Torquay, near 

Geelong, Vict. 
K — Thamnastraea sera, Duncan. Janjukian. Table Cape, Tas. 
F— Graph ularia senescens. Tate sp. Janjukian. Waurn Ponds, near 

Geelong - , Vic. 
G — Trematotrochus clarkii, Dennant. Kalimnan. Gippsland 

I,akes. Vic. 

Sphenotrochus, Ceratotrochus, Conosmilia y Tremato- 
trochus, Notophyllia and Balanophyllia (Fig. 71). 

Corals especially characteristic of the Janjukian 
Series are Paracyathus tasmanicus, Stephanotrochus 
tatei, Montlivaltia variformis, Thamnastraea sera and 


Dendrophyllia epithecata. The stony axis of the 
Sea-pen, Graphularia senescens, a member of the 
Oetocoralla, is also typical of this stage, and are 
called "square-bones" by the quarrymen at Waurn 
Ponds, near Geelong, where these fossils occur. 

The Kalimnan Corals are not so abundantly repre- 
sented as in the foregoing stages, but certain species 
of Flabellum and Trematotrochus, as F. curium and 
T. clarkii, are peculiar to those beds. Several of the 
Janjukian Corals persist into Kalimnan times, some 
dating as far back as the Balcombian, as Spheno- 
trochus emarciatus. The Sea-pen, Graphularia 
senescens is again found at this higher horizon, at 
Beaumaris; it probably represents a varietal form, 
the axis being smaller and more slender. 

Other examples of the Octocoralla are seen in 
Mopsea, two species of which are found in the Jan- 
jukian at Cape Otway ; the deeper beds of the Mallee ; 
and the Mount Gambier Series. 

A species of the Astraeidae (Star-corals) of the 
reef-forming section, Plesiastraea st.vincenti, is found 
in the Kalimnan of Hallett's Cove, South Australia 


The few animals of this group met with in fossil 
faunas are represented by the living Millepora 
(abundant as a coral reef organism), Hydr actinia 
(parasitic on shells, etc.), and Sertularia (Sea-firs). 

Milleporids and Stylasterids. — 

Although so abundant at the present time, the 
genus Millepora does not date back beyond the 
Pleistocene. The Eocene genus Axopora is supposed 


to belong here, but is not Australian. Of the Stylas- 
terids one example is seen in Deontopora, represented 
by the branchlets of D. inooraboolensis, from the 
Janjukian limestone of the Moorabool Valley, near 

Hydractinia. — 

Hydractinia dates from the Upper Cretaceous rocks 
in England, and in Australia its encrusting poly- 
pidom is found attached to shells in the polyzoal lime- 
stone of Mount Gambier (Miocene). 


An important group of reef -builders in Palaeozoic 
times was the organism known as Strornatopora, 
and its allies. The structures of these hydroid 
polyps resemble successional and repetitional stages 
of a form like Hydractinia. As in that genus it always 
commenced to grow upon a base of attachment such 
as a shell, increasing by successive layers, until the 
organic colony often reached an enormous size, and 
formed great mounds and reefs (see antea, Fig. 32). 
The stromatoporoid structure was formed by a layer 
of polyp cells separated by vertical partitions, upon 
which layer after layer was added until a great ver- 
tical thickness was attained. This limestone-making 
group first appeared in the Silurian, and probably 
reached its maximum development in Middle 
Devonian times, when it almost disappeared, except 
to be represented in Carbopermian strata by a few 
diminutive forms. 



Silurian Stromatoporoids. — 

In the Silurian limestones of Victoria (Lily dale, 
Waratah Bay, "Walhalla and Loyola), and New South 
Wales (near Yass), Stromatoporoids belonging to the 
genera Clathrodictyon (probably C. regnlare), 
Stromatopora and Idiostroma occur. Stromatopor- 
ella has been recorded from the Silurian rocks of the 
Jenolan Caves, New South Wales. 
Devonian Stromatoporids. — 

The Middle Devonian strata of Bindi, Victoria, 
yield large, massive examples of Actinostroma. This 
genus is distinguished from the closely allied Clathro- 
dictyon by its vertical pillars passing through 
several laminae in succession. Rocks of the same 


A — Actinostroma clathratum, Nich. Devonian. Rough Range, W.A. 
B — Actinostroma clathratum, Nich. Devonian Rough Ran^e, W.A. 

Vertical section. {After G.J. Hinde . 

C— Callograptus sp. Up. Ordovician. San Rtmo, Vict. 

{After T. S. Hall). 
D— Ptilograptus sp. Up. Ordovician. San Remo. Vict. 

{After T. S. Hall). 
E— Dictyonema pulchellum, T. S. Hall. I, Ordov I,ancefield Vict. 
T— Dictyonema macgillivraj i, T. S. Hall. 1^. Ordov. L,aneefield Vict. 


age in Queensland contain Stromatopora, whilst in 
Western Australia the Rough Range Limestone has 
been shown to contain Actinostroma clathratiim (Fig. 
72 A, B) and Stromatoporella eifeliensis. 

Palaeozoic Cladophora. — 

Some branching and dendroid forms of Hydrozoa 
probably related to the modern Calyptoblastea 
("covered buds"), such as Serhilaria and Campanu- 
laria, are included in the Cladophora ("Branch 
bearers"). They existed from Cambrian to 
Devonian times, and consist of slender, forking 
branches sometimes connected by transverse processes 
or dissepiments, the branches bearing on one or both 
sides little cups or hydrothecae which evidently con- 
tained the polyps, and others of modified form, per- 
haps for the purpose of reproduction. The outer 
layer, called the periderm was of chitinous material. 
They were probably attached to the sea-floor like the 
Sertularians ( Sea-firs ) . 
Dictyonema and Allies. — 

Remains of the above group are represented in the 
Australian rocks by several species of Dictyonema 
(Fig. 72 E, F) occurring in the Lower Ordovician of 
Lancefield, and in similar or older shales near Mans- 
field. Some of these species are of large size, Z>. 
grande measuring nearly a foot in width. The genera 
Callograptus, Ptilograptus (Fig. 72 C, D) and Den- 
drograptus are also sparsely represented in the 
Upper Ordovician of Victoria, the two former from 
San Remo, the latter from Bulla. 


Graptolites ( Graptolitoidea ) . — 

Value of Graptolites to Stratigraphist. — 

The Graptolites were so named by Linnaeus from 
their resemblances to writing on the slates in which 
their compressed remains are found. They form a 
very important group of Palaeozoic fossils in all parts 
of the world where these rocks occur, and are well 
represented in Australasia. The species of the 
various Graptolite genera are often restricted to par- 
ticular beds, and hence they are of great value as 
indicators of certain horizons or layers in the black, 
grey or variously coloured slates and shales of 
Lower Ordovician to Silurian times. By their aid 
a stratum or set of strata can be traced across country 
for long distances, and the typical species can be cor- 
related even with those in the older slates and shales 
of Great Britain and North America. 

Nature of Graptolites. — 

The Graptolites were compound animals, consisting 
of a number of polyps inserted in cups or thecae 
which budded out in a line from the primary sicula 
or conical chamber, which chamber was probably 
attached to floating sea-weed, either by a fine thread 
(nema), or a disc-like expansion. This budding of 
the polyp-bearing thecae gives to the polypary or 
colony the appearance of a fret-saw, with the teeth 
directed away from the sicula. 

The habit of the earlier graptolites was to branch 
repeatedly, as in Clonograptus, or to show a com- 
pound leaf-like structure as in Phyllograptus. Later 


on the many-branched forms had their branches 
reduced until, as in Didymograptus, there were only 
two branches. Sometimes the branches opened out 
to direct the thecae upwards, the better to procure 
their food supply. In Diplograptus the thecae 
turned upwards and acquired a support by the forma- 
tion of a medium rod (virgula), often ending in a disc 
or float. In Silurian times Monograptus prevailed, 
a genus having only a single row of thecae supported 
by a straight or curved virgula. In Retiolites the 
polypary opened out by means of a net-work of fine 
strands, rendering it better able to float, at the 
same time retaining its original strength. 

Lower Ordovician Graptolites, Victoria. — 

The Lower Ordovician slates and shales of Vic- 
toria have been successfully divided into several dis- 
tinct series by means of the Graptolites. These, com- 
mencing at the oldest, are : — 

(1) Lancefield Series. Characterised by Bryo- 
graptus clarki, B. victoriae, Didymograptus pritch- 
ardi, D. taylori and Tetragraptus decipiens. Other 
forms less restricted are, Clonograptus magnificus 

(measuring over a yard in breadth) C. flexilis 
0. rigidus, Leptograptus antiquus and Tetragraptus 
approximatus (Fig. 73). 

(2) Bendigo Series. Characterised by Tetragraptus 
fruticosus, T. pendens, Trichograptus fergusoni and 
Goniograptus thureaui. This series also contains 
Tetragraptus serra (ranging into Darriwill Series), 
T. bryonoides, T. quadribrachiatus, T. approximatus 


A— Bryograptus clarki, T. S. Hall. I,. Ordovician. Iyancefield, Vict. 
B — Tetragraptus fruticosus, J. Hall sp. I,. Ordovician. Iyancefield. 
C— Phyllograptus typus, J. Hall. I,. Ordovician. I,ancefield. 
D— Goniograptus macer, T. S. Hall. I,. Ordovician. I^ancefield. 
E— Didymograptus caduceus, Salter. X,. Ordovician. I,ancefield. 
F— Trigonograptus wilkinsoni T.S.Hall. I,. Ordov. Darriwill, Vict. 


A— IyOganograptus logani. J. Hall sp. Iy. Ordov. Newham, Vict. 
B— Tetragraptus approxiraatus, Nich. t, Ordovician. Canada and 
Victoria. {After Nicholson) 

C— Tetragraptus serra, Brongn. sp. T,. Ordovician. I y ancefield. Vict. 
D— Didymograptus bifidus, J Hall. I,. Ordovician. Guildford. Vict. 



(base of the series), Phyllograptus typus, Dichograp- 
tus octobrachiatus, Goniograptus macer and many 
Didymograpti, including D. bifidus (Fig. 74). 

(3) Castlemaine Series. Characterised by Didy- 
mograptus bifidus, D. caduceus and Loganograptus 
logani. Phyllograptus persists from the Bendigo 
Series. It also contains Tetragraptus serra, T. 
bryonoides, T. qiiadribrachiatus, Goniograptus macer 
and several Didymograpti. 

(4) Darriwill Series. Characterised by Trigono- 
graptus wilkinsoni. Also contain Diplograptns, 
Glossograptus and Lasiograptus, whilst Didymograp- 
tus is rare. 

Lower Ordovician Graptolites, New Zealand. — 

In New Zealand Lower Ordovician Graptolites are 
found in the Kakanui Series, at Nelson, north-west of 
South Island. Some of the commoner forms are 
Didymograptus extensus, D. caduceus, Loganograp- 
tus logani, Phyllograptus typus, Tetragraptus 
similis and T. qiiadribrachiatus. 

Graptolites agreeing closely with those of the 
Lancefield Series of Victoria occur near Preservation 
Inlet in the extreme South-west, and have been 
identified as Clonograptus rigidus, Bryograptus 
victoriae and Tetragraptus decipiens. 

Upper Ordovician Graptolites, Victoria. — 

The Upper Ordovician rocks of Victoria, as at 
Wombat Creek and Mount "Wellington in Gippsland, 
and at Diggers' Rest near Sunbury, contain the 
double branched forms like Dicranograptus ramosus, 
Dicellograptus elegans and D. sextans; the sigmoidal 
form Stephanograptus gracilis; and the diprionidian 



A — Dicranograptus raniosus, J. Hall sp. Up. Ordovician. Victoria. 
B — Dicellograptus elegans, Carruthers sp. Up. Ordovician. Victoria. 
C — Diplograptus carnei. T. S. Hall Up. Ordovician. N. S. Wales. 
D — Climacograptus bicornis, J. Hall. Up. Ordovician. Victoria. 
K— Glossograptus hermani, T. S. Hall. Up. Ordovician. Victoria. 
F — Retiolites australis. McCoy. Silurian. Keilor, Victoria. 
G- Monograptus dubius, Suess. Silurian. Woods Point, Victoria. 

(biserial) forms as Diplograptus tardus, Climacograp- 
tus bicornis, Cryptcgraptus tricornis, Glossograptus 
hermani and Lasiograptus margaritatus (Fig. 75). 

Upper Ordovician Graptolites, New South Wales. — 
In New South Wales, at Tallong, the Upper Ordo- 
vician Graptolites are well represented by such forms 
as Dicellograptus elegans, Dicranograptus nicholsoni. 
Diplograptus carnei, D. foliaceus, CryptograpUis 
tricornis and Glossograptus quadrimucronatus, etc. 
Other localities in New South "Wales for this Grapto- 
lite fauna are Stockyard Creek, Currowang, Tin- 
garingi, Lawson, and Mandurama. 


Tasmania. — 

From Tasmania a Diplograptus has been recorded, 
but the particular horizon and locality are uncertain. 

Silurian Graptolites, Victoria. — 

In the Silurian shales at Keilor, in Vic- 
toria, Monograptas is a common genus, and 
Cyrtograptus and Retiolites australis (Fig. 75 F) also 
occur. Several species of Monograptus have also 
been found at South Yarra and Studley Park. At 
the latter place and Walhalla Monograptus dubius, 
which is a Wenlock and Ludlow fossil in Britain, has 
been found in some abundance (Fig. 75 Gr). 



Protospongia sp. Cambrian: S. Australia. 

ttyalostelia sp. Cambrian: S. Australia. 

Protospongia oblonga, Hall. L. Ordovician: Victoria. 

Stephanella maccoyi, Hall. L. Ordovician: Victoria. 

Carpospongia sp. Silurian: Yass, New South Wales. 

ReceptaGulites fergusoni, Chapman. Silurian: Victoria. 

Receptaculites australis, Salter sp. Devonian: Victoria and 
New South Wales. Carboniferous: Queensland. 

( ? ) Lasiocladia hindei, Eth. fil. Carbopermian : Queensland. 

Purisiphonia clarkei, Bowerbank. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 

Geodia sp. Cainozoic: W. Australia. 

Tethya sp. Cainozoic: W. Australia. 

Ecionema newoeryi, McCoy sp. Cainozoic. Victoria. 

PJectroninia halli, Hinde. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Victoria. 

Tretocalia pezica, Hinde. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Victoria. 


Protopharetra scoulari, Etheridge, fil. Cambrian: S. Aus- 
Cosrinocyathus australis, Taylor. Cambrian: S. Australia. 
Archaeocyathina ajax, Taylor. Cambrian: S. Australia. 



Cyathophyllum approximans, Chapman. Silurian: Victoria. 

Tryplasma liliiformis, Etheridge, fil. Silurian: New South 

Favosites grandipora, Etheridge fil. Silurian: Victoria. 

Pleurodictyum megastomum, Dun. Silurian: Victoria. 

Halysites peristephicus, Etheridge, fil. Silurian: New South 

Heliolites interstincia, Linne sp. Silurian: Victoria. 

Campophyllum gregorii, Eth. fil. Middle Devonian: Victoria 
and Queensland. 

Cystiphyllum australasicum, Eth. fil. Middle Devonian; 
New South Wales and Queensland. 

Favosites multitabulata, Eth. fil. Middle Devonian: Victoria 
and New South Wales. 

Pachypora meridionalis, Eth. fil. Middle Devonian: Queens- 

Zaphrentis culleni, Eth. fil. Carboniferous : New South Wales. 

Lophophyllum cornicuhim, de Koninck. Carboniferous: New 
South Wales. 

Zaphrentis profunda, Eth. fil. Carbopermian : Queensland. 

Campophyllum columnare, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales. 

Trachypora wilkinsoni, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: New South 

Stenopora tasmaniensis, Lonsdale. Carbopermian: Tasmania 
and New South Wales. 

Flabellum gambierense, Duncan. Cainozoic: Victoria. S. Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania. 

Placotrochus deltoideus, Duncan. Cainozoic: Victoria, S. 
Australia and Tasmania. 

Sphenotrochus emarciatus, Duncan. Cainozoic: Victoria, S. 
Australia, and Tasmania. 

Ceraiotrochus exilis, Dennant. Cainozoic: Victoria. 

Conosmilia elegans, Duncan. Cainozoic: Victoria. 

Balanophyllia armata, Duncan. Cainozoic: Victoria. 

Thamnastraea sera, Duncan. Cainozoic: Victoria and Tas- 

Graphularia senescens, Tate sp. Cainozoic: Victoria and S. 


Clathrodictyon (?) regulare, Rosen sp. Silurian: Victoria. 
Actinostroma clathratum, Nicholson. Devonian: W. Austra- 
Strom at oporella eifeliensis, Nich. Devonian: W. Australia. 


Dictyonema pulchella, T. S. Hall. Lower Ordovician: Victoria. 
Ptilograptus sp. L. Ordovician: Victoria. 
Callograptus sp. Lower Ordovician: Victoria. 


Bryograptus victoriae, T. S. Hall. Lower Ordovician (Lance- 
field Series) : Victoria. 

Tetragraptus fruticosus, J. Hall. L. Ordovician (Bendigo 
Series) : Victoria. 

Didymograptus caduceus, Salter. L. Ordovician (Castle- 
maine Series) : Victoria. Also New Zealand. 

Didymograptus bifidus, J. Hall. L. Ordovician (Castle- 
maine Series) : Victoria. Also New Zealand. 

Trigonograptus toilkinsoni, T. S. Hall. L. Ordovician (Darri- 
will Series) : Victoria. 

Dicranograptus ramosus, J. Hall sp. Upper Ordovician: Vic- 

Monograptus dubius, Suess. Silurian: Victoria. 

Retiolites australis, McCov. Silurian: Victoria. 


Cambrian.— Tate, R. Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., vol. XV. (N.S.), 
1892, p. 188. 

Ordovician. — Hall, T. S. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. I. pt. I. 
1889, pp. 60, 61 (Protospongia) . Idem, ibid., vol. XI. 
(N.S.), pt. II. 1899, pp. 152-155 (Protospongia and Step- 
hanella ) . 

Simrian to Carboniferous. — Salter, J. W. Canad. Org. Rem. 
Dec. I. 1859, p. 47. Etheridge, R. jnr. and Dun, W. S. 
Rec. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. VI. 1898, pp. 
62-75. Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. vol. XVIII. 
(N.S.), pt. 1, 1905, pp. 5-15. 

Carbopermian. — Etheridge, R. jnr., in Geol. and Pal. Q., 
1892, p. 199. 

Cretaceous. — Bowerbank, J. S. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, 
p. 342. Etheridge, R. jnr. in Geol. and Pal. Queens- 
land, 1892, pp. 438, 439 ( Purisiphonia) . 

Cainozoic. — McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. V. 1877. Chap- 
man, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XX. (N.S.), pt. 2, 1908, 
pp. 210-212 (Ecionem,a) . Hinde, G, J. Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, vol. LVL, 1900, pp. 50-56 (calcisponges). Idem, 
Bull. Geol. Surv. W. Austr., No. 36, 1910, pp. 7-21 
( sponge-spicules ) . 



Etheridge, R. jnr., Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., vol. XIII. 1890, 
pp. 10-22. Taylor, T. G. Mem. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. II., 
pt. 2, 1910 (a monograph). 


Silurian. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Geol. Surv. New South 
Wales, vol. II. pt. 1, 1890, pp. 15-21 (Silurian and 
Devonian). Idem, ibid., vol. II. pt. 4, 1892, pp. 165-174 
Silurian and Devonian). Idem, in Pal. and Geol. 
Queensland, 1892. Idem, Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. I., No. 
10, 1891, pp. 201-205 (Rhizophyllum). Id., ibid., vol. 
III. No. 2, 1897, pp. 30-33 ( Columnar ia ) . Id., Prog. 
Rep. Geol. Surv. Vict,, No. 11, 1899, pp. 30-36. Idem, 
Mem. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, No. 13, pt. I., 1904 
(Halysites) . Id., ibid., No. 13, pt. 2, 1907 ( Tryplasma) . 
De Koninck, L. G. ibid., Pal. No. 6, 1898. Shearsbv, A. 
J. Geol. Mag., Dec. V., vol. III. 1906, pp. 547-552. Chap- 
man, F. Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., vcl. II. pt, 1. 1907, pp. 

Devonian. — Etheridge, R. jnr. and Foord, A. H. Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., ser. V., vol. XIV., 1884, pp. 175-179 (Alveo- 
lites and Amplexopora = Litophyllum) . Etheridge, R. 
jnr., in Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 1892. Idem. Proc. 
Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. IX. 1895, pp. 518-539, 
Id., Rec. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. VI. pt. 3, 
1899, pp. 152-182 (Tamworth District). Id., Rec. Austr. 
Mus., vol. IV. No. 7, 1902, pp. 253-260. De Koninck, L. 
G. Mem. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 6. 1898. 
Chapman, F. Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., vol. Ill, pt. 2. 1912, 
pp. 215-222. 

Carbopermian. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Mem. Geol. Surv. New 
South Wales, Pal. No. 5 1891. Idem, in Geol. and Pal. 
Queensland, 1892. Id., Bull. Geol. Surv., W. Austr.. No. 
10, 1903, pp. 8-10. 

Cainozoic. — Duncan, P. M. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. 
XXVI. 1870, pp. 284-318; vol. XXXI. 1875, pp. 673-678; 
vol. XXXII. 1876, pp. 341-351. Woods, T. Proc. Linn. 
Soc. New South Wales, vol. XL, 1878, pp. 183-195; ibid., 
vol. XXX. 1879, pp. 57-61. Idem, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Austr., vol. I., 1878, pp. 104-119. Dennant, J. Trans. 
R. Soc. S. Austr., vols XXIIL (1899) to XXVIII. 


Hinde, G. J. Geol. Mag., Dec. III. vol. VII, 1890, p. 193. 



McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Decades I. (1874): II. (1875): 
V. (1877). Hall, T. S. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. IV. 
p. I. 1892, pp. 7, 8 (Dictyonema) . Idem, Geol. Mag. 
Dec. IV. vol. VI. 1899, pp. 438-451; Id., Rep. Austr. 
Assoc. Adv. Sci., Brisbane, 1909, pp. 318-320. Id., Rec. 
Geol. Surv. Vict., vol. I. pt. 4, 1906, pp. 266-278. Id., 
ibid., vol. III. pt. 2, 1912, pp. 188-211. Idem, Rec. Geol. 
Surv. New South Wales, vol. VII. part 1, 1910, pp. 16, 
17. Ibid., pp. 49-59. 



Divisions of Echinodermata. — 

The subkingdom of ECHINODERMATA includes 
the above groups comprised in the Classes Crinoidea, 
Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea. Besides 
these are the less important classes of the Cystidea or 
sac-shaped echinoderms (of which no definite remains 
are recorded from Australian rocks) ; the Blastoidea 
or bud-shaped echinoderms (of which four genera are 
known from Australia) ; the Edrioasteroidea or sessile 
star-fishes (unknown in Australia) ; and the Holo- 
thuroidea or sea-cucumbers (represented as fossils by 
the skin spicules and plates, an example of which has 
been recorded from Australia). 

CRINOIDEA, or Sea-lilies. 

Crinoidea, their General Structure — 

These often beautiful and graceful animals re- 
semble a star-fish mounted on a stalk. They are 
composed of calcareous joints and plates, and are 
therefore important as rock-formers. The stalk or 
column may be either short or long, and is generally 
rooted, in the adult stage, in the mud of the sea- 
floor. Fossil Crinoids were sometimes furnished with 



a coiled termination, which could be entwined around 
such objects as the stems of sea-weeds. The crinoid 
column is composed of numerous plates, and is round 
or pentagonal. Upon this is fixed the calyx or cup, 
with its attached arms, which serve to bring food 
to the mouth, situated on the upper part of the 
cup. The arms are grooved, and the water, 
being charged with food particles (animalcula), pours 
down these channels into the mouth. The stem ele- 
vates the animal above the mud or silt of the sea-floor, 
thus making it more easy for it to obtain its food 
supply. The stalks of fossil Crinoids sometimes 
reached the enormous length of 50 feet. Their 
calcareous skeleton is built upon a plan hav- 
ing five planes of symmetry; this pentamerism is 
found throughout the crinoids, the Mastoids and the 
free-moving echinoderma. Crinoids range from 
moderately shallow- to deep-water, and at the present 
day are almost restricted to abyssal conditions. The 
more ancient types usually found their habitats 
amongst reefs or in comparatively clear water, where 
there was a marked freedom from sediment, although 
that was not an essential, as seen by their numerous 
remains in the Australian mudstones and sandstones. 

Cambrian Crinoids. — 

The group of the Crinoidea first appears in the 
Upper Cambrian, and persists to the present time. 
In North America the genus Dendrocrinus occurs in 
the Cambrian and Ordovician; and some stem-joints 
from the Upper Cambrian limestone of the Mount 
Wellington district, Victoria, may be provisionally 
referred to this genus. 



Ordovician Crinoids. — 

No undoubted Crinoid remains have been found in 
the Australian Ordovician ; although many genera are 
found elsewhere in that system, chiefly in N. America, 
as Reteocriniis, Hybocrinus, Heterocrimis and Den- 
drocrinus, and in Europe and North America, as 
Bhodocrinus and Taxoerinus. 
Silurian Crinoids. — 

The Silurian Crinoidea of Australia are largely re- 
presented by the remains of the columns or stalks, 
which are often found in such abundance as to con- 
stitute large masses of subcrystalline limestone, as 
that of Toongabbie, Victoria. The columns of the 
Crinoids do not usually possess sufficient characters 


A— (?) Pisocrinus yassensis, Eth. fil. Side of calyx. Silurian. Yass, 

New South Wales 
B— (?) Pisocrinus yassensis, Kth. fil. Dorsal Surface. Silurian. N.S.W. 
C— Botryocrinus longibrachiatus, Chapm. Silurian. Flemington. Vict. 
D— Helicocrinus plumosus, Chapm. Stem, distal end. Brunswick, 

E— Phialocrinus konincki, Eth. fil. Carbopermian (Up. Mar. Ser.) 

Nowra, New South Wales 
F—Isocrinus australis. Moore sp. T,. Cretaceous. Wollumbilla Q'ld. 


to enable the forms to be identified. There are, how- 
ever, more perfect and identifiable remains of several 
very interesting generic types in the Silurian faunas 
as follows:— 

In New South Wales Pisocrinus is represented with 
some reservation by (?) P. yassensis, found at Lime- 
stone Creek, near Yass (Fig. 76 A, B). 

In Victoria, Helicocrinus plumosus and Botryo- 
crinus longibrachiatus occur at Brunswick and Flem- 
ington, respectively (Fig. 76). The former is a 
delicate and handsome species, having a small cup 
with finely pinnate arms, which are forked once, and 
with a pentagonal stem coiled at the distal end (see 
Frontispiece). The genus Botryocrinns is found in 
rocks of a similar age in North America and England. 
Hapalocrinus victoriae, a member of the Platy- 
crinidae, has been described from the mudstone of 
South Yarra, near Melbourne. The species above 
mentioned are of Melbournian age, belonging to the 
lower stage of the Silurian system. 

Devonian Crinoids. — 

In the Middle Devonian of Queensland, fragmen- 
tary crinoid stems are found interbedded with the 
limestone of the Broken River. 

Thin slices of the limestone of the same age from 
Buchan, Victoria, show numerous ossicles and stem- 
joints of Crinoids. 

Similar remains have also been recorded from the 
Devonian of the Kimberley district and the Gascoyne 
River in Western Australia. 
Carboniferous Crinoids. — 

The Carboniferous (Star Beds) of Queensland has 
yielded remains of Actinocrinus. 


The Matai Series of New Zealand, which may be 
regarded* as almost certainly of Carboniferous age, 
contains remains of a Cyathocrinus, found in the 
limestone of the Wairoa Gorge. 

Carbopermian Crinoids. — 

The Carbopermian (Upper Marine Series) of New 
South Wales yields the interesting Crinoid having a 
large, globular cup, known as Phialocrinus; the best 
known species of this genus are P. konincki (Fig. 76 
E) and P. princeps. Beds of the same age in New 
South "Wales, also in the Upper Marine Series, con- 
tain the aberrant Crinoid with strongly sculptured 
plates of the calyx in the decorticated condition, 
Tribracliiocrinii s c lark ei. 

Poteriocrinus and Platycrinus are, with some reser- 
vation, recorded from the Gympie Series at Stanwell 
and the marine beds of the Bowen River Coalfield 
respectively, both in Queensland. 

In Western Australia the Carbopermian rocks of 
the Gascoyne Eiver are known to contain crinoid 
stems, tentatively referred to either the Rhodocrinidae 
or the Actinocrinidae. There is also a species 
of Platycrinus known from the Gascoyne and Irwin 
Rivers, and from the Kimberley District. 

Triassic Crinoids. — 

The Kaihiku Series of Nelson, New Zealand, has 
yielded some crinoid stems, but the genus has not yet 
been determined. 

Cretaceous Crinoids. — 

In the Lower Cretaceous Limestone of Queensland, 
at Mitchell Downs and Wollumbilla, a typical Crinoid, 
closely allied to the living Pentacrinus is found, 
namely, Isocriniis australis (Fig. 76 F). 


The Upper Cretaceous opal deposits of White Cliffs 
in Wilcarmia, New South Wales, contain many opal- 
ised fossil remains, amongst them being Isocrinus 
australis, already noticed as occurring in the Lower 
Cretaceous of Queensland. 
Cainozoic Crinoids. — 

Pentacrinus stellatus is a species founded on some 
deeply indented pentagonal stem-joints found in the 
Oamaru Series (Miocene) at Curiosity Shop,- South 
Canterbury, New Zealand, and also occurring in the 
Chatham Islands. This species has been identified 
in the Aire Coastal beds in Victoria, of the same age. 
Another generic type, Antedon, the beautiful 
"Feather Star," is frequently met with in Janjukian 
strata in Victoria and South Australia, as at Bates- 
ford and Mount Gambier, represented by the denuded 
crown and the ossicles of the arms of a comparatively 
large species; whilst another and smaller form has 
been described from beds of the same age from bor- 
ings in the Victorian Mallee, under the name of A. 

BLASTOIDEA — Bad-shaped Echinoderms. 
Distribution and Characters of Blastoidea. — 

This forms a small class which has a few represen- 
tatives in the rocks of Australia. Elsewhere they 
are chiefly of Devonian and Carboniferous ages. In 
Australia they are confined, so far as known, to sedi- 
ments of the Carboniferous System. The animal was 
rooted to the sea-floor and a jointed stem was usually 
present. The cup or theca, as before noted, is bud- 
shaped, and consists of basal, radial and deltoid 
plates, the edges of which are folded inwards into 


the thecal cavity, and thus the internal organs came 
into contact with the incurrent water. The cup 
bears five food grooves, bordered by numerous arms 
or brachioles, which directed the incurrent particles 
into the thecal cavity. 
Carbopermian Blastoids. — 

Three genera of blastoids have been recorded from 
the Gympie Beds, or Carbopermian, of the Rockhamp- 
ton District of Queensland. They are, Mesoblastus; 
Granatocrinus and Tricoclocrinus. A similar fossil 
in beds of like age, and provisionally referred to the 
genus Metablastus, has been lately recorded from 
Glenwilliam, Clarence Town, New South Wales. 

ASTEROIBEA, or Starfishes. 

Characters of True Starfishes. — 

These free-moving echinoderms are usually five- 
sided, though sometimes star-shaped, with numerous 
arms surrounding a central disc. The mouth is cen- 
tral on the under side of the disc, and the anus above 
and near the centre (excentric), the latter being 
covered by a porous plate called the madreporite. The 
hydraulic system of star-fishes consists of tubes ex- 
tending along the grooved arms and giving off side 
branches which end in processes called podia and ter- 
minating in suckers. The podia pass through pores 
in the floor plates of the grooves, and communicate 
within the body with distensions called ampulla. By 
this means the podia serve as feet, and can be with- 
drawn by the expulsion of the water in them into 
the ampulla. The stout flexible covering of the star- 
fish is strengthened by calcareous plates and bars, 



owing to the presence of which they are often pre- 
served as fossils. 
Silurian Starfishes. — 

The oldest Australian fossil Starfishes are found in 
the Silurian. In Victoria they occur in some abund- 
ance in the lower, Melbournian, series, but appear to 
be absent or at all events very scarce in the upper, 
or Yeringian series. The commonest genus is Pal- 
aeaster, of which there are two species, P. smythi 
(Fig. 77 A) and P. meridionalis, found alike in the 
sandy and argillaceous strata near Melbourne. 
Urasterella is another genus found in the Silurian 
rocks near Melbourne, in which the marginal serie3 
of plates seen in Palaeaster are wanting, giving to 
the starfish a slender, long-armed aspect (Fig. 77 B). 


A.— Pa^easter smythi. McCoy sp Silurian. Flemington, Victoria. 
B— Urasterella selwyni. McCoy. Silurian. Kilmore, Victoria. 
C— Palaeaster gieranteus, Kth. fil. Carbopermian. Near Farley, 

Ntw South Wales 
D— Pentagonaster sp. Tertiary (Janjukian). Bore in Mallee. Victoria 


Carbopermian Starfishes.— 

In the Lower Marine Series of the Carbopermian of 
New South Wales a very large species of Palaeaster 
occurs (P. giganteus), measuring 7 inches from point 
to point across the disc (Fig. 77 C). Two other species 
of the same genus occur in this series (P. stutcKburii 
and P. clarkei) the latter also ranging into the Upper 
Marine Series. 
Cainozoic Starfishes. — 

No remains of true Starfishes have been recorded 
from Australia between the Carbopermian and the 
Tertiary systems. In the Janjukian Series of Vic- 
toria the marginal plates of a species of Pentagon- 
aster are typical fossils. They have been recorded 
from Waurn Ponds, Spring Creek near Torquay, and 
Batesford (Fig. 77 D). In the Mallee Bores, both 
marginal and abactinal plates of this genus are found 
in polyzoal limestone (Miocene). Pentagonaster 
also occurs in the Lower Muddy Creek beds (Oligo- 
cene), and the Upper beds of the same locality 
(Lower Pliocene). A species of Astropecten has 
been described from the Waikari River, New Zealand 
(Oamaru Series). 

OPHIUROIDEA, or Brittle-stars. 

Characters of Brittle-Stars. — 

The Brittle-stars are frequently found at the pre- 
sent day cast up on the fine sandy beaches of the 
coast. They are easily distinguished from true star- 
fishes by having a definite central disc, to which the 
arms are attached. The arms are used for locomo- 
tion and prehension, and have their grooves covered 


over with plates. The ossicles of the arms are move- 
able and controlled by muscles which enable them to 
be used as feet. The lower surface of the disc has a 
central arrangement of five rhomboidal sets of jaws, 
formed of modified ossicles, called the mouth frame, 
whilst the upper surface bears, between one set of 
arms, the madreporite or covering plate to the water 
vascular system, as in starfishes. 
Silurian Brittle-Stars. — 

The Brittle-stars in Australia first appear in the 
Silurian, but in England and Bohemia date back to 
the Ordovician. Protaster is the commonest genus, 
and is represented by P. brisingoides of the Mel- 
bournian stage of Silurian strata at Flemington (Fig. 
78). It also occurs rarely in the Yeringian beds 
at Yering, both Victorian localities. A very orna- 
mental form, Gregoriura spryi, occurs in the . same 

Fig. 78— Protaster brisingoides, Gregory. 

Negative cast of the calcareous skeleton. Nat. size. 

Silurian Sandstone, Flemington, Victoria 

(Nat. Mus. Coll.) 



Fig. 79— A Brittle-Star. (Greagoriura spryi, Chapm ) 

Nat. size. From the Silurian Mudstone of South 

Yarra, Victoria. {Nat. Mus. Coll.) 

division of the Silurian at South Yarra. In this 
fossil the delicate spines attached to the adambulacral 
ossicles are well preserved and form a marginal 
fringe to the arm (Fig. 79). Sturtzura is another 
Silurian genus, found in the Wenlock of England 
and in the Melbournian of Flemington, Victoria. 

Cainozoic Brittle-Stars. — 

From the Victorian Cainozoic beds, in the Lower 
Pliocene of Grange Burn, Hamilton, a vertebral 
ossicle of an ophiurian has been obtained, which has 
been provisionally referred to the genus Sigsbeia. 

ECHINOIDEA, or Sea-urchins. 

This group is an important one amongst Austra- 
lian fossils, especially those of Cainozoic age. 


Characters of Sea-urchins. — 

Echinoids are animals enclosed in a spheroidal box 
or test composed of numerous calcareous plates, dis- 
posed geometrically as in the Star-fishes, along five 
principal lines. The test in the living condition is 
more or less densely covered with spines. The 
mouth is on the under surface. The anus is either on 
the top of the test (dorso-central), or somewhere in 
the median line between the two lower ambulacra. 
The ambulacra ("a garden path") are the rows of 
perforated plates on the upper (abactinal) surface 
sometimes extending to the lower surface, through 
which protrude the podia, which in Star-fishes are 
situated in grooves on the lower surface. 

Silurian Palaeechinoids. — 

The Palaeechinoids are represented in the Silurian 
of Australia by occasional plates, as at Bowning, New 
South Wales, and near Kilmore, Victoria, whilst 
spines are not uncommon in certain Silurian lime- 
stones at Tyer's River, Gippsland. 

Oarbopermian Palaeechinoids. — 

In the Carbopermian of New South Wales, tests of 
Archaeocidaris have been recorded, and also a plate 
of the same genus in the Gympie Beds of Rockhamp- 
ton, Queensland. 

Regular Echinoids. — 

The regular Echinoids date from Permian times. 
They have two vertical rows of plates for each am- 
bulacrum and inter-ambulacrum. The mouth is on 
the underside, and the anus abactinal (on the upper 
side) and near the centre. 



A — Cidaris (Iyeiocidaris^ australiae, Duncan sp. Cainozoic (Janjuk- 
ian). Cape Otway. Victoria 

B — Psammechinus woodsi, I,aube. Cainozoic (janjukian). Murray- 
River Cliffs, S Australia 

C— Fibularia gregata, Tate. CHinozo ; c (Janjukian). Aldinga, S.A. 

D— Echinocyamus (Scutellina) pat el a, Tate sp. Cainozoic (janjuk- 
ian). Torquay, Victoria 

K — Clypeaster gippslandicus, McCoy. Cainozoic (Janjukian). 
Bairnsdale, Victoria 

F — Studeria elegans, I^aube, sp. Cainozoic (janjukian). Murray 
River Cliffs, S. Australia 

Cainozoic Regular Echinoids. — 

In Australasia they make their first appearance in 
strata of Tertiary age, and some species, as Para- 
doxechinus novus, range through Balcombian strata 
to Kalimnan in Victoria, or Oligocene to Lower Plio- 
cene, but are more typically Janjukian. Echinus 
(Psammechinus) woodsi (Fig. 80 B) is common in 
Janjukian strata in Victoria and South Australia 
and occurs sparingly in the Kalimnan. Another 
common form of the regular Echinoids in Southern 
Australia is Cidaris australiae (Fig. 80 A), rang- 
ing from Janjukian to Kalimnan, occurring more 
frequently in the older series. In New Zealand a 
species of Cidaris (C. striata), is known from the 


Oamaru Series at Brighton. An Echinus occurs in 
the Oamaru Series of Broken River, and two species 
of that genus in the Wanganui formation of Shake- 
speare Cliff. Temnechinus macleayana has been re- 
corded from the Cainozoic (Miocene or Pliocene) of 
Yule Island, Papua. 
Irregular Echinoids. — 

The irregular Echinoids are not known before the 
Upper Cretaceous in Australia, and are very com- 
mon in the Tertiaries. They are distinguished by 
the anus (periproct) passing backward from the apex, 
as compared with the regular forms, and by the 
elongation of the test and the loss of the strong solid 
spines, which are replaced by thin, slender hairlike 
spines. The animal is thus better fitted to burrow 
through the ooze on which it feeds. 
Cretaceous Irregular Echinoids. — 

An interesting form, Micraster stveeti, is found in 
the Upper Cretaceous or Desert Sandstone of Mary- 
borough in Queensland, which reminds one of typical 
European species of this genus. 
Cainozoic Irregular Echinoids. — 

Amongst the Australian Cainozoic Echinoids of the 
irregular type the following may be mentioned. 
The little subglobular test of Fibularia gregafa, and 
Echinocyamus (Scutellina) patella (Fig. 80 C, D) 
are Janjukian in age. The large Clypeaster, C. 
gippslandicus (Pig. 80 E), ranges from the Oligocene 
to Lower Pliocene in Victoria (Balcombian to Kalim- 
nan), and vies in size, especially in the Janjukian, 
with some large species like those from Malta and 
Egypt. This genus includes some of the largest known 
sea-urchins. The biscuit urchin, Arachnoides (Mono- 



stychia) aiistralis, is commonest in the Janjukian, 
but ranges from Balcombian to Kalimnan. A com- 
mon urchin from the polyzoal rock of Mt. Gambler is 
Echinolampas gambierensis, which is also found in 
the Lower beds of Muddy Creek. A typical Jan- 
jukian fossil is Diincaniaster australiae, formerly 
thought to belong to the Cretaceous genus Holaster. 
Although found living, the genus Linthia attained its 
maximum development both in size and abundance/ 
in Janjukian or Miocene times, as seen in L. gigas 
(having a length of 1\ inches) and L. mooraboolensis. 
EcMnoneus dennanti is restricted to the Janjukian. 
Several species of Eupatagus occur in the Cainozoic 
or Tertiary beds of South Australia, Victoria and New 
Zealand; Lovenia forbesi (Fig. 81 C) is common in 



A— H miaster planed eclivis, Gregory. Cainozoic (Janjukian). 

Morgan, S. Australia 
B— Schizaster sphenoides, T. S. Hall. Cainozoic (Barwonian). 

Sherbrooke River, Victoria 
C — lovenia forbesi, T. Woods sp. Cainozoic (Janjukian). Murrav 

River Cliffs, S. Australia 


the Janjukian to Kalimnan, both in Victoria and 
South Australia. In the latter State also occur the 
following genera: — Studeria, Cassidulus, Echinolam- 
pas, Plesiolampas, Linthia, Schizaster and Brissopsis. 
In New Zealand the following Cainozoic genera, 
amongst others of the irregular sea-urchins, may be 
cited : — Hemipatagus, Brissopsis, Herniaster, and 
Schizaster (Fig. 81). 

A clypeastroid, Peronella decagonalis has been de- 
scribed, from the (?) Lower Pliocene of Papua. 

Cainozoic Holothuroidea. — 

The HOLOTHUROIDEA (Sea-Cucumbers) are 
represented in Australian deposits by a unique 
example of a dermal spicule of wheel-like form, 
referred to Chiridota, obtained from the Cainozoic 
(Janjukian) beds of Torquay. This genus is also 
knowTL from the "calcaire grossier" or Middle Eocene 
of the Paris Basin, and is found living in all parts of 
the world. 



(f) Pisocrinus yassensis, Eth. fil. Silurian: New South Wales. 
Helicocrinus plumosus, Chapman. Silurian: Victoria. 
Botryocrinus longibrachiatus, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 
Hapalocrinus victoriae, Bather. Silurian: Victoria. 
Actinocrinus sp. Carboniferous: Queensland. 
Cyathocrinus sp. Carboniferous: New Zealand. 
Phialocrinus konincki, Clarke sp. Carbopermian : New South 

Phialocrinus princeps, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: New South 

Trior achiocrinus clarkei, McCoy. Carbopermian: New South 



(?) Platycrinus sp. Carbopermian: Queensland. 

Platycrinus sp. Carbopermian: W. Australia. 

Isocrinus australis, Moore sp. Cretaceous: Queensland. 

Pentacrinus stellatus, Hutton. Miocene: New Zealand, Chat- 
ham Ids. and Victoria. 

Antedon protomacronema, Chapman. Miocene: Victoria ( deep 
borings ) . 


(?) Mesoblastus australis, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: Queens- 


Palaeaster smythi, McCoy. Silurian: Victoria. 
Palaeaster meridionalis, Eth. fil. Silurian: Victoria. 
Urasterella selicyni, McCoy. Silurian: Victoria. 
Palaeaster giganteus, Eth. fil. Carbopermian (L. Mar. Ser.) : 

New South Wales. 
Palaeaster clarkei, de Koninck. Carbopermian (L. and Up. 

Mar. Ser.) : New South Wales. 
Pentagonaster sp. Miocene: Victoria. 
Astropecten sp. Miocene: New Zealand. 


Protaster brisingoides, Gregory. Silurian: Victoria. 
Gregoriura spryi, Chapman. Silurian: Victoria. 
Bturtzura leptosomoides, Chapman. Silurian: Victoria. 
(?) Sigsbeia sp. Lower Pliocene: Victoria. 


Palaeechinus sp. Silurian: Victoria. 
(?) Archaeocidaris selwyni, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: New 

South Wales. 
Micraster sweeti, Eth. fil. Cretaceous: Queensland. 
Cidaris (Leiocidaris) aastraliae, Duncan. Miocene and Lower 

Pliocene: Victoria and S. Australia. 
Cidaris striata, Hutton, Miocene: New Zealand. 
Echinus (Psammechinus) woodsi, Laube sp. Miocene and L. 

Pliocene: Victoria and S. Australia. 
Temnechinus macleayana, T. Woods. Cainozoic ( ? Lower 

Pliocene) : Papua. 
Fibularia gregata f Tate. Miocene: Victoria and S. Australia. 
Echinocyamus (Scutellina) patella, Tate sp. Oligocene to 

Miocene: Victoria and S. Australia. 
Clypeaster gippslandicus, McCoy. Oligocene to L. Pliocene: 



Arachnoides (Monostychia) australis, Laube sp. Oligocene' to 
L. Pliocene: Victoria and S. Australia. 

Echinoneus dennanti, Hall. Miocene: Victoria. 

Duncaniaster australiae, Duncan sp. Miocene : Victoria. 

Lovenia forbesi, T. Woods sp. Miocene and L. Pliocene: Vic- 
toria and S. Australia. 

Hemiaster planedeclivis, Gregory. Miocene: Victoria. 

Chiridota sp. Miocene: Victoria. 


Silurian. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. V. No. 

5, 1904, pp. 287-292 (Pisocrinus) . Bather, F. A. Geol. 

Mag., Dec. XV. vol. IV. 1897, pp. 337-345 (Hapalo- 

crinus) . Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XV. 

(N.S.), pt. II. 1903, pp. 107-109 (Helicocrinus and Botryo- 

crinus). Bather, F. A. Ottawa Nat., vol. XX. No. 5, 

1906, pp. 97, 98. 
Carboniferous and Carbopermian. — De Koninck, L. G. Mem. 

Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 6, 1898, pp. 121- 

126. Etheridge, R. jnr., in Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 

1892, pp. 207-219. Idem, Mem. Geol. Surv. New South 

Wales, Pal. No. 5, 1892, pp. 75-119. 
Cretaceous. — Moore, C. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. XXVI. 

1870, p. 243. Etheridge, R. jnr., in Geol. and Pal. 

Queensland, 1892, p. 439 (Isocrinus) . 
Cainozoic. — Hutton, F. W. Cat. Tert. Moll, and Ech. of New 

Zealand, 1873, p. 38. 


Carbopermian. — Etheridge, R. jnr., in Geol. and Pal. Queens- 
land, 1892, pp. 210-213. Taylor, T. G. Proc. Linn. Soc. 
New South Wales, 1908, pp. 54-59 (t Metablastus) . 


Silurian.— McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. I., 1874, pp. 41-43. 

Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. I., No. 10, 1891, 

pp. 199, 200. 
Carboniferous and Carbopermian. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Mem. 

Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 5, pt. 2, 1892, 

pp. 70-75. De Koninck, L. G. Ibid., Pal. No. 6, 1898, 

p. 127. 


Cainozoic— Hall, T. S. Proc. R. Soc, Vict., vol. XV. (N.S.), 
pt. I. 1902, pp. 81, 82 {Pentagonaster). Hutton, F. W. 
Cat. Tert. Moll, and Ech. New Zealand, 1873, p. 38. 


Silurian.— Gregory, J. W. Geol. Mag., Dec. III. vol. VI. 1889, 
pp. 24-27. Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XIX. 
(N.S.), pt. II. 1907, pp. 21-27. 

Cainozoic— Hall, T. S. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XV. (N.S.), 
pt. I. 1902, p. 82 (cf. Sigsbeia). 


Silurian. — Chapman, F. Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., vol. II. pt. 1, 
1907, pp. 77, 78. 

Carbopermian. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Mem. Geol. Surv. New 
South Wales, Pal. No. 5, pt. 2, 1892, pp. 67-69. 

Cretaceous. — Etheridge, R. jnr., in Geol. and Pal. Queens- 
land, 1892, pp. 559, 560. 

Cainozoic— T. Woods. Trans. Adelaide Phil. Soc, 1867. 
Laube, G. C. Sitz, k. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. LIX. 1869, 
pp. 183-198. Hutton, F. W. Cat. Tert. Moll, and Ech. 
New Zealand, 1873, pp. 38-43. Duncan, P. M. Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. XXXIII. 1877, pp. 42-73. Tate, 
R. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. XXXIII. 1877, pp. 256 
258. Idem, Southern Science Record, 1885, p. 4. Idem, 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., vol. XIV. pt. 2, 1891, pp. 270- 
282. McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. VI. VII. 1879, 
1883. Gregory, J. W. Geol. Mag., Dec. III. vol. VII. 
1890, pp. 481-492. Ibid., Dec. III. vol. IX. 1892, pp. 
433-437. Cotteau, G. H. Mem. Zool. France, vol. II. 
No. 4, 1889, p. 228; vol. III. No. 5, 1890, pp. 537-550; 
vol. IV. No. 5, 1891, pp. 620-633. Bittner, A. Sitz. k.k. 
Ak. Wiss. Wien, 1892, vol. 101, pp. 331-371. Hall, T. 
S. Proc. Roy. Soc Vic, vol. XIX. (N.S.), pt. II. 1906, 
pp. 48, 53. Chapman, F. Proc Roy. Soc. Vict., vol XX. 
(N.S.), pt. II. 1908, pp. 214-218. Pritchard, G. B. ibid., 
vol. XXI. (N.S.), pt. I. 1908, pp. 392-400.. 


Cainozoic— Hall, T. S. Proc, R. Soc Vict., vol. X. (N.S.), 
pt. I. 1902, pp. 82, 83. 



The first-named group, the ringed worms, belong to 
the phylum Annelida, so-called because of the ring- 
like structure of their bodies. The two remaining 
groups, the Polyzoa or Sea-mats and the Brachiopods 
or Lamp-shells, are comprised in the phylum Mollus- 
coidea, or mollusc-like animals. 

WORMS (Annelida). 

Annelida and their Fossil Representatives.— 

These animals, owing to the scarcity of hard parts 
within their bodies, play a rather insignificant role as 
a fossil group. "Worms are laterally symmetrical 
animals, with a dorsal and a ventral surface. They 
are segmented, the body being formed of numerous 
rings. Only those of the Class Chaetopoda ("bristle- 
feet") are represented by identifiable fossil remains. 
Fossil worms, moreover, chiefly belong to the Order 
Polychaeta ("many bristles"). The horny jaws of 
these worms are sometimes found in the older rocks 
and are known as conodonts. 




Silurian Conodonts. — 

Conodonts belonging to three genera are known 
from Australia. They are all from the Silurian of the 
Bowning District, near Yass, New South Wales, and 
are referred to the genera Eunicites, Oenonites and 
Palaeozoic Errant Worms. — 

The wandering Worms (Polychaeta errantia) are 
also recognised by their impressions, trails, borings 
and castings. Burrows formed by these worms are 
seen in Arenicolites, found in the Silurian sandstone 
of New South Wales, near Yass, and in the Carboper- 
mian (Gympie Series) near Rockhampton, Queens^ 
land. The membranous-lined burrows of Trachy* 
derma (T. crassituba) , occur in some abundance in 
the Silurian mudstones in the neighbourhood of Mel- 


A— Trachyderma crassituba, Chapm, Silurian. South Yarra, Vict. 
B— Cornuhtes tasmanicus, Eth. fil. Silurian. Heazlewood, Tas. 
C— Spirorbis ammonius, M. Kdwards, var truncata, Mid. Devonian. 

Buchan, Victoria 
D ~' ror lessia mackayi, Bather. ? Trias. Mt. Torlesse, N. Zealand 


bourne, Victoria (Fig. 82 A). The genus Trachy- 
derma is common also to Great Britain and Burmah, 
in beds of the same age. 
Worm Tracks. — 

Some of the curious markings on the Carboniferous 
sandstone of Mansfield, Victoria, may be due to worm 
trails and castings, especially since they are associated 
with sun-cracks and ripple-marks. 

Sedentary Worms. — 

The sedentary or tube-making Worms (Polychaeta 
tubicola) are represented by numerous forms. The 
long conical tube of Cornulites tasmanicus is recorded 
from the Silurian of Zeehan, Tasmania (Fig. 82 B). 
Spirorbis occurs in the Middle Devonian of Victoria 
(Fig. 82 C), and W. Australia, and also in the Carbo- 
permian of W. Australia. Torlessia is found in the 
Trias or Lower Jurassic of the province of Canter- 
bury, New Zealand (Fig. 82 D). The genus Serpula 
is widely distributed, occurring in the Carbopermian 
(Upper Jurassic Series), near East Maitland, New 
South Wales ($. testatrix), in the Jurassic of W. 
Australia (8. conformis) , in the Lower Cretaceous of 
Wollumbilla, Queensland (S. intestinalis) , and the 
Darling River, north west of New South Wales, 
($. subtrachinus ) , as well as in Cainozoic deposits 
in Victoria (8. ouyenensis). Ditrupa is very abun- 
dant in some shelly deposits of Janjukian age in 


The Sea-mats (Polyzoa) and the Lamp-shells 
(Brachiopoda) constitute a natural group, the MOL- 
LUSCOIDEA, which, although unlike in outward 


form, have several physiological structures in com- 
mon. The respiratory organs lie in front of the 
month, and are in the form of fleshy tentacles or 
spiral appendages. These animals are more nearly 
allied to the worms than to the molluscs. 

Characters of Polyzoa. — 

These are almost exclusively marine forms, and are 
important as fossils. They form colonies (polypary 
or zoarium), and by their branching, foliaceous or 
tufty growth resemble sea-weeds. The cells in 
which the separate zooids lived have peculiar charac- 
ters of their own, which serve to distinguish the dif- 
ferent genera. 
Subdivisions of Polyzoa. — 

Polyzoa are divided into the Sub-classes Phylacto- 
laemata, in which the mouth of the zooid has a lip, 
and the series of tentacles is horse-shoe shaped; and 
the Grymnolaemata, in which there is no lip to the 
mouth, and the tentacles form a complete circle. The 
first group forms its polypary of soft or horny 
material, which is not preserved fossil. The latter 
has a calcareous polypary, and is of much import- 
ance as a fossil group. This latter subclass is fur- 
ther subdivided into the following Orders, viz.:— 
Trepostomata ("turned mouths"), Cryptostomata 
("hidden mouths"), Cyclostomata ("round 
mouths"), and Cheilostomata ("lip mouths" fur- 
nished with a moveable operculum). 

Trepostomata (Palaeozoic). — 

The Order Trepostomata may include some genera 
as Monticulipora and Fistulipora, previously referred 



to under the corals. They become extinct after Per- 
mian times. Fistulipora occurs in certain Gipps- 
land limestones. 
Cryptostomata (Palaeozoic). — 

In the order Cryptostomata we have the genus 


A — Fenestella margaritifera, Chapm. Silurian. Near Yeri: g, Vict. 
B — Polypora australis, Hinde. Carbopermian. Gascoyne River, 

Western Australia 
C — Rhombopora tenuis, Hinde. Carbopermian. Gascoyne River, 

Western Australia 
D — Protoretepora ampla, Iyonsdale sp. Carbopermian. N.S.W. 

Rhombopora with its long, slender branches, which 
occurs in the Silurian of Victoria and the Carboper- 
mian of Queensland and W. Australia (Fig. 83 C). 
Of this order a very important Australian genus is 
Fenestella, the funnel-shaped zoaria of which are 
found in the Silurian of Victoria and New South 
Wales, and also in the Carboniferous of the latter 
State. Fenestella also occurs in the Carbopermian of 



W Australia and Tasmania (Fig. 83 A). Accom- 
panying the remains of Fenestella in the Carboper- 
mian rocks, and closely related to it, are found the 
genera Protoretepora and Polypcra (Fig. 83 B, D). 

Polyzoa have been noticed in Jurassic rocks in W. 
Australia, but no species have been described. 

Cheilostomata (Cretaceous). — 

Species of the genera (?) Membranipora and 
(?) Lepralia, belonging to the Cheilostomata, have 
been described from the Lower Cretaceous of the 
Darling River, New South Wales, and Wollumbilla, 
Queensland, respectively. 


A — Iyichenopora australis, Mac Gill ivray. Balcombian. Hamilton, 

B — Heteropora pisiformis, MacGillivray. Janjukian. Moorabool, 

C— Cellaria australis, MacGillivray. Balcombian. Hamilton. Vict. 
D — Selenaria cupola. T. Woods sp. Balcombian. Hamilton, Vict. 
E— I^epralia elongata, MacGill. Balcombian. Hamilton, Victoria 


Cainozoic Polyzoa. — 

A very large number of genera of the Polyzoa have 
been described from the Tertiary strata of South 
Australia and Victoria. Some of the principal of 
these are Crisia, Idmonea, Stomatopora, Lichenopora, 
Horner a, Entalophora and Heteropora of the order 
Cyclostomata ; and Catenicella, Cellaria, Membtani- 
pora, Lunulites, Selenaria, Macropora, Tessarodoma, 
Adeona, Lepralia, Bipora, Smittia, Vorina, Cellepora 
and Retepora of the order Cheilostomata. Many of 
these genera, and not a few Australian species, are 
found also in the Cainozoic or Tertiary beds of Orakei 
Bay, New Zealand (Fig. 84). 

BRACHIOPODA (Lamp-shells). 

Brachiopods: Their Structure.— 

These are marine animals, and are enclosed in a 
bivalved shell. They differ, however, from true 
bivalves (Pelecypoda) in having the shell on the 
back and front of the body, instead of on each side 
as in the bivalved mollusca. Each valve is equi- 
lateral, but the valves differ from one another in that 
one is larger and generally serves to attach the 
animal to rocks and other objects of support by a 
stalk or pedicle. Thus the larger valve is called 
the pedicle valve and the smaller, on account of its 
bearing the calcareous supports for the brachia or 
arms, the brachial valve. Generally speaking, the 
shell of the valve is penetrated by numerous canals, 
which give the shell a punctate appearance. Some 
brachiopod shells, as Atrypa and Rhynchonella, are, 
however, devoid of these. 



A — Orthis (?) lenticularis, Wahlenberg. Up. Cambrian. Florentine 

Valley, Tasmania 
B — Siphonotreta maccoyi. Chapm. Up. Ordovician. Bulla. Vict. 
C — Iyingula yarraensis, Chapm. Silurian. South Yarra, Victoria 
D— Orbiculoidea selwyni, Chapm. Silurian. Merri Creek, Victoria 
E — Chonetes melbournensis. Chapm. Silurian. South Yarra, Vict. 
F— Strop heodonta alata, Chapm. Silurian. Near L,ilydale, Vict. 

Cambrian Brachiopods. — 

Brachiopods are very important fossils in Austra- 
lasian rocks. They first appear in Cambrian strata, 
as for example, in the Florentine Valley, in Tasmania, 
where we find Orthis lenticularis (Fig. 85 A ). In 
Victoria, near Mount Wellington, in the mountainous 
region of N.E. Gippsland, Orthis platystrophioides is 
found in a grey limestone. In South Australia the 
grey Cambrian limestone of Wirrialpa contains the 
genus Huenella (H. etheridgei). This genus is also 
found in the Middle and Upper Cambrian of N. 
Ordovician Brachiopods. — 

Coming to Ordovician rocks, the limestones of the 
Upper r niKe Basin in South Australia contain Orthis 


leviensis and 0. dichotomalis. The Victorian maid- 
stone at Heathcote may be of Ordovician age or even 
older; it has afforded a limited fauna of brachiopods 
and trilobites, amongst the former being various 
species of Orthis, Chonetes, and Siphonotreta. The 
latter genus is represented in both the Lower and 
Upper Ordovician rocks of slaty character in Vic- 
toria (Fig. 85 B). 

Silurian Brachiopods. — 

The Silurian system in Australasia as in Europe, 
N. America and elsewhere, is very rich in brachiopod 
life. It is impossible to enumerate even all the 
genera in a limited work like the present, the most 
typical only being mentioned. 

In New Zealand the palaeozoic fauna is at present 
imperfectly worked out, but the following genera 
from the Wangapekian (Silurian) have been iden- 
tified, viz., Chonetes, Stricklandinia, Orthis, Wilsonia, 
Atrypa, and Spirifer. The specific identificaton of 
these forms with European types is still open to ques- 
tion, but the species are undoubtedly closely allied to 
some of those from Great Britain and Scandinavia. 

The Victorian Silurian Brachiopods are represented 
by the horny-shelled Lingula, the conical Orbiculoi- 
dea, a large species of Siphonotreta, Stropheodonta 
(with toothed hinge-line), Strophonella, Chonetes 
(with hollow spines projecting from the ventral valve, 
one of the species C. melbournensis being characteris- 
tic of the Melbournian division of Silurian rocks), 
Orthis, Pentamerus, Camarotoechia, Rhynchotrerna, 
Wilsonia, Atrypa (represented by the world-wide A. 
reticularis) , Spirifer and Nucleospira (Figs, 85, 86). 



New South Wales has a very similar assemblage of 
genera ; whilst Tasmania possesses Camarotoechia, 
Stropheodonta and Orthis. 

Devonian Brachiopods. — 

The Devonian limestones and associated strata are 
fairly rich in Brachiopods. The Victorian rocks of 
this age at Bindi and Buchan contain genera such as 
Chonetes (C. australis), Spirifer (S. yassensis and $. 
hoivitti) and Athyris. 

In New South Wales we again meet with Spirifer 
yassensis, veritable shell-banks of this species occur- 
ring in the neighbourhood of Yass, associated with a 
species of Chonetes (C. culleni) (Fig. 86 D, E). 


A — Caniarotoechia decemplicata, Sow. Silurian. Victoria 
B — Nucleospira australis, McCoy. Silurian. Victoria 
C— Atrypa reticularis. I,, sp. Silurian. Victoria 
D— Chonetes culleni. Dun. Mid. Devonian. New South Wales 
E — Spirifer yassensis, de Koninck, Devonian. New South Wales 
and Victoria 



In the Upper Devonian of New South Wales abun- 
dant remains occur of both Spirifer disjunctus and 
Camarotoechia pleurodon (var.). 

The Upper Devonian Series at Nyrang Creek near 
Canowindra, New South Wales, contains a Lingula 
(L. gregaria) associated with the Lepidodendron 
plant beds of that locality. 

Queensland Devonian rocks contain Pentarnerus, 
Atrypa and Spirifer. In Western Australia the 
Devonian species are Atrypa reticularis, Spirifer cf, 
verneuili, S. musakheylensis and Uncinulus cf. timor- 

Carboniferous Brachiopods. — 

The Carboniferous Brachiopod fauna is represented 
in New South Wales at Clarence Town and other 
localities by a species which has an extensive time- 
range, Lcptaena rhomboidalis var. analoga, and the 
following, a few of which extend upwards into the 
Carbopermian : — Chonetes papilionacea, Productus 
semireticulatus, P. punctatus, P. cor a, Orthothetes 
crenistria, Orthis (Rhipidomella) australis, 0. 
(Schizophoria) resupinata, Spirifer striatus, S. bisul- 
catus, Cyrtina carbonaria and Athyris piano sulcat us. 
In New Zealand the Matai series, referred to the 
Jurassic by Hutton, as formerly regarded by Hec- 
tor, and latterly by Park, as of Carboniferous age, on 
the ground of a supposed discovery of Spirifer subra- 
diatus (S. glaber) and Productus brachythaerus in 
the Wairoa Gorge. Although these species may not 
occur, the genera Spirifer and Productus are present, 
which, according to Dr. Thomson, are distinctly of 
pre-Triassic types. 



A— Productus brachythaerus, Sow. Carbopermian. New South 

Wales, &c. 
B— Strophalosia clarkei, Kth. sp. Carbopermian. N.S.W., &c. 
C— Spirifer convolutus Phillips. Carbopermian. N.S.W., &c. 
D— Spirifer (Martiniopsis) subradiatus, Sow. Carbopermian. 

New South Wales, &c. 

Carbopermian Brachiopods. — 

The Brachiopod fauna of Carbopermian age in New 
South Wales is rich in species of Productus and Spiri- 
Jer. Amongst the former are P. cor a (also found in 
Western Australia, Queensland and Tasmania), P. 
brachythaerus (also found in Western Australia and 
Queensland), (Fig. "87 A), P. semireticulatus (also 
found in Western Australia, Queensland and the 
Island of Timor, and a common species in Europe), 
and P. undatus (also found in Western Australia and 
Queensland, as well as in Great Britain and Russia). 
Strophalosia is an allied genus to Productus. It is 
a common form in beds of the same age in W. Aus- 
tralia, Tasmania, and New South Wales. The best 


known species is 8. clarkei (Fig. 87 B). This type 
of shell is distinguished from Productus in being 
cemented by the umbo of the ventral valve, which 
valve is also generally less spinose than the dorsal. 
When weathered the shells present a peculiar silky 
or fibrous appearance. The genus Spirifer is repre- 
sented in W. Australia by such forms as S. vesper- 
tilio, S. convolutns, 8. hardmani, 8. musakheylensis, 
and 8. striatus; whilst 8. vespertilio and 8. convolu- 
iits are common also to New South "Wales (Fig. 87 C). 
and the latter only to Tasmania. 8. vespertilio is found 
in the Gympie beds near Rockhampton, Queensland; 
and 8. tasmaniensis in Queensland (Bowen River 
Coal-field, Marine Series), New South Wales and 
Tasmania. Of the smoother, stout forms, referred to 
the sub-genus Martiniopsis, we may mention 8. (M.) 
subradiatas, which occurs in W. Australia, New 
South Wales, and Tasmania (Fig. 87 D). 

In the Queensland fauna, the Gympie series con- 
tains, amongst other Brachiopods Productus cora, 
Leptaena rhoynboidalis var., analog a, Spirifer vesper- 
tilio and 8. strzeleckii. 

Other Carbopermian Brachiopod genera found in 
Australian faunas are Cleiothyris, Dielasma, Hypo- 
thyris, Reticularia, Seminula, Cyrtina, and Syringo- 
th yris. 
Triassic Brachiopods. — 

The Kaihiku Series of New Zealand (Hokonui Hills 
and Nelson) are probably referable to the Trias. The 
supposed basal beds contain plants such as Taeniop- 
teris, Cladophlebis, Palissya and Baiera. Above these 
are marine beds containing Brachiopods belonging to 



Spiriferina, Rhynchonella, Dielasma and Athyris. 
The succession of these beds presents some palaeonto- 
logical anomalies still to be explained, for the flora 
has a decided leaning towards a Jurassic facies. 

Next in order of succession the Wairoa Series, in 
the Hokonui Hills and Nelson, New Zealand, con- 
tains Dielasma and Athyris wreyi. 

The succeeding series in New Zealand, the Otapiri, 
or Upper Triassic contains the Brachiopod genera 
Athyris 1 and Spiriferina, found at Well's Creek, Nel- 

Jurassic Brachiopods. — 

The marine Jurassic beds of W. Australia, as at 
Shark Bay and Greenough River, contain certain 


A — Rhynchonella variabilis Schloth. sp. Jurassic. W.Australia 

B — Terebratella davldsoni, Moore. I,. Cretaceous. Queensland 

C — Iyingula subovalis. Davidson. L. Cretaceous S Australia 

D — Rhynchonella croydonensis, Eth. fil. Up. Cretaceous. Queensland 

1. — Eeferred by Hector to a new sub-genus Clavigera, 
which name, however, is preoccupied. 


Rhynchonellae allied to European species, as R. 
variabilis (Fig. 88 A), and R. cf. solitaria. 
Lower Cretaceous Brachiopods. — 

The Lower Cretaceous or Rolling Downs Formation 
of Queensland has yielded a fair number of Brachio- 
pods, principally from Wollumbilla, — as Terebratella 
davidsoni (Fig. 88 B), (?) Argiope ivollumbillensis, 
(1) A. punctata, Rhynchonella rustica, R. solitaria, 
Discina apicalis and Lingula siibovalis. From beds 
of similar age in Central South Australia and the 
Lake Eyre Basin Lingula siibovalis (Fig. 88 C), and 
Rhynchonella eyrei have been recorded; the latter 
has been compared with a species (R. walkeri) from 
the Middle Neocomian of Tealby in Yorkshire. 
Upper Cretaceous Brachiopod. — 

A solitary species of the Brachiopoda occurs 
in the Upper Cretaceous of Australia, namely, 
Rhynchonella croydonensis (Fig. 88 D) of the Desert 
Sandstone of the Croydon Gold-fields and Mount 
Angas, Queensland. 
Cainozoic Brachiopods. — 

The Brachiopoda of the Cainozoic or Tertiary strata 
of Australia and New Zealand are well represented 
by the genera Terebratnla, Magellania, Terebratulina, 
Terebratella, Magasella and Acanthothyris. In the 
Balcombian or Oligocene of southern Australia occur 
the following: — Terebratnla tateana, Magellania 
corioensis, M. garibaldiana and Magasella compta 
(Figs. 89 A, D) ; and most of these range into the 
next stage, the Janjukian, whilst some extend even 
to the Kalimnan. Terebratulina suessi, Hutton sp. 
( r = T. scoulari, Tate) ranges through the Balcombian 



A — Terebratula tateana, T. Woods. Cainozoic. Victoria 

B — Magellania corioensis, McCoy, sp. Cainozoic. Victoria 

C— Magellania garibaldiana, Dav. so. Cainozoic. Victoria 

D— Magasella compta. Sow. sp. Cainozoic. Victoiia 

K — Terebratulina catinuliformis. Tate. Cainozoic. S. Australia 

F — Acanthothyris squamosa, Hutton sp. Cainozoic. Tasmania 

and Janjukian, but is most typical of the Janjukian 
beds in Victoria : it also occurs in the Oamaru Series 
of New Zealand ( = Janjukian). Acanthothyris 
squamosa (Fig. 89 F) is typical of the Janjukian of 
southern Australia, and it occurs also in the Pareora 
beds of the Broken River, New Zealand. The latter 
are green, sandy, fossiliferous strata immediately 
succeeding the Oamaru stone of the Hutchinson 
Quarry beds. A. squamosa is said to be still 
living south of Kerguelen Island. Magellania insolita 
is a Victorian species which is also found in the 
Oamaru Series of New Zealand. 

Whilst many of the older Tertiary brachiopods 
range into the next succeeding stage of the Kalimnan 
in Victoria, such as Magellania insolita, Terehratu- 


Una catinuliformis (Fig. 89 E) and Magasella compta, 
one species, Terebratella pumila, is restricted to the 
Kalimnan, occurring at the Gippsland Lakes. 

The next stage, the Werrikooian, typical in upraised 
marine beds on the banks of the Glenelg River in 
western Victoria, contains Magellania flavescens, a 
species still living (see antea, Fig. 23), and M. 
insolita, having the extraordinarily wide range of the 
whole of the Cainozoic stages in southern Australia. 



Eunicites mitchelli, Eth. fill. Silurian: New South Wales. 

Oenonites hebes, Eth. fil. Silurian: New South Wales. 

Arabellites bowningensis, Eth. fil. Silurian: New South 

Arenicolites sp. Silurian: New South Wales. 

Trachyderma crassituba, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Cornulites tasmanicus, Eth. fil. Silurian: Tasmania. 

Spirorbis ammonius, M. Edw. var. truneata, Chapm. Mid. 
Devonian: Victoria. 

Spirorbis omphalodes, Goldfuss. Devonian: W. Australia. 

Serpula testatrix, Eth. fil. Carbopermian : New South Wales. 

Torlessia mackayi, Bather. Lower Mesozoic: New Zealand. 

Serpula conformis, Goldfuss. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Serpula intestinalis, Phillips. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland. 

Serpula subtrachinus, Eth. fil. Lower Cretaceous: New South 

Serpula ouyenensis, Chapm. Cainozoic: Victoria. 

Ditrupa cornea, L. sp. var. irormbetiensis. McCoy. Caino- 
zoic: Victoria. 


Rhombopora gippslandica, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 
Fenestella australis, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 
Protoretepora ampla, Lonsdale. Carbopermian: W. Australia, 

New South Wales, Queensland, and Tasmania. 
Polypora australis, Hinde. Carbopermian: W. Australia. 


Rhombopora tenuis, Hinde. Carbopermian : W. Australia. 
Rhombopora laxa, Etheridge sp. Carbopermian: Queensland. 
Membranipora wilsonensis, Eth. fil. Lower Cretaceous: New 

South Wales. 
(?) Lepralia oolitica, Moore. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland. 
Lichenopora australis, MacGillivray. Cainozoic: Victoria. 
Heteropora pisiformis,, MacGillivray. Cainozoic: Victoria. 
Cellaria australis, MacGillivray. Cainozoic: Victoria. 
Membranipora macrostoma, Reuss. Cainozoic: Victoria (also 

Belenaria marginata, T. Woods. Cainozoic: Victoria (also 

living) . 
Macropora clarkei, T. Woods sp. Cainozoic: Victoria. 
Adeona obliqua, MacGill. Cainozoic: Victoria. 
Lepralia burlingtoniensis, Waters. Cainozoic: Victoria. 
Bipora philippinensis, Busk sp. Cainozoic: Victoria (also 

Porina gracilis, M. Edwards sp. Cainozoic: Victoria (also 

Cellepora fossa, Haswell, sp Cainozoic: Victoria (also living). 
Retepora fissa, MacGill. sp. Cainozoic: Victoria (also living). 


Orthis lenticularis, W^ahlenberg sp. Cambrian: Tasmania. 

Orthis platystrophioides, Chapm. Cambrian: Victoria. 

Huenella etheridgei, Walcott. Cambrian: S. Australia. 

Orthis leviensis, Eth. fil. Ordovician: S. Australia. (?) Vic- 

Siphonotreta discoidalis, Chapm. Ordovician: Victoria. 

Siphonotreta maccoyi, Chapm. Ordovician: Victoria. 

Lingula yarraensis, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Orbiculoidea selwyni, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Chonetes melbournensis, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Stropheodonta alata, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Orthis elegantula, Dalman. Silurian: Victoria. 

Pentamerus australis, McCoy: Silurian: Victoria and New 
South Wales. 

Conchidium knightii, Sow. sp. Silurian: Victoria and New 
South Wales. 

Camarotoechia decemplicata, Sow. sp. Silurian: Victoria. 

Rhynchotrema liopleura, McCoy sp. Silurian: Victoria. 

Atrypa reticularis, L. sp. Silurian: New South Wales and Vic- 
toria. Devonian: New South Wales, W. Australia and 

Spirifer sulcatus, Hisinger sp. Silurian: Victoria. 

Nucleospira australis, McCoy. Silurian: Victoria. 

Chonetes australis, McCoy. Mid. Devonian: Victoria. 


Chonetes culleni, Dun. Mid. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Spirifer yassensis, de Koninck. Mid. Devonian: New South 
Wales and Victoria. 

Spirifer cf. verneuili, de Kon. Mid. Devonian: New South 
Wales and W. Australia. 

Lingula gregaria, Eth. fil. Upper Devonian: New South Wales. 

Spirifer disjunctus, Sow. Up. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Productus cora, d'Orb. Carboniferous: New South Wales 
and Queensland. 

Orthothetes crenistria, Sow. sp. Carboniferous: New South 

Spirifer striatus, Sow. Carboniferous: New South Wales. 

Productus brachythaerus, Sow. Carbopermian : New South 
Wales, Queensland, W. Australia. 

Strophalosia clarkei, Eth. sp. Carbopermian: New South 
Wales, Tasmania and W. Australia. 

kpirifer (Martiniopsis) subradiatus, Sow. Carbopermian: 
New South Wales, Tasmania and W. Australia. 

Spirifer convolutus, Phillips. Carbopermian. New South 
Wales, Tasmania and W. Australia. 

Cleiothyris macleayana, Eth. fil. sp. Carbopermian: W. Aus- 

Dielasma elongata, Schlotheim sp. Trias (Kaihiku Series) : 
New Zealand. 

Athyris wreyi, Suess sp. Trias (Wairoa Series) : New Zea- 

Athyris sp. Trias (Otapiri Series) : New Zealand. 

Rhynchonella variabilis, Schlotheim sp. Jurassic: W. Aus- 

Terebratella davidsoni, Moore. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 

Rhynchonella solitaria, Moore. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 

Lingula subovalis, Davidson. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland 
and S. Australia. 

Rhynchonella croydonensis, Eth. fil. Upper Cretaceous: 

Terebratula tateana, T. Woods. Cainozoic (Balcombian and 
Janjukian) ; Victoria and S. Australia. 

Magellania corioensis, McCoy, sp. Cainozoic (Balcombian 
and Janjukian) : Victoria and S. Australia. 

Magellania garibaldiana, Davidson sp. Cainozoic (Balcom- 
bian and Janjukian) : Victoria and S. Australia. 

Magasella compta, Sow. sp. Cainozoic (Balcombian to Kalim- 
nan) : Victoria and S. Australia. 

Terebratula suessi, Hutton sp. Cainozoic (Balcombian and 
Janjukian) : Victoria, S. Australia, and New Zealand 
(Oamaru Series.) 


Acanthothyris squamosa, Hutton sp. Cainozoic ( Janjukian) : 
Victoria and S. Australia, New Zealand (Oamaru Series) 
(also living) . 

Terehratella pumila, Tate. Cainozoic (Kalimnan) : Victoria. 

Magellania flavescens, Lam. sp. Pleistocene: Victoria (also 


Silurian. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. Mag., Dec. III. vol. VII. 
1890, pp. 339, 340. Idem, Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. (for 
1896), 1897, p. 37. Chapman, F. Proc. R, Soc. Vict., 
vol. XXII. (N.S.), pt. II. 1910, pp. 102-105 

Devonian— Hinde, G. J. Geol. Mag., Dec. II. vol. VII. 1890, 
p. 199. Chapman, F. Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., vol. III. 
pt. 2, 1912, p. 220. 

Carboniferous. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Bull. Geol. Surv. W. Aus- 
tralia, No. 10, 1903, p. 10. 

Carbopermian. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Mem. Geol. Surv. New 
South Wales. Pal. No. 5, 1892, pp. 119-121. 

Lower Mesozoic. — Bather, F. A. Geol. Mag., Dec. V. vol. II. 
1905, pp. 532-541. 

Lower Cretaceous. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Mem. Soc. Geol. Surv.. 
New South Wales, Pal. No. 11. 1902, pp. 12, 13. 

Cainozoic. — Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XXVI. 
(N.S.) pt. I. 1913, pp. 182-184. 


Silurian.— Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XVI. (N.S.), 

pt. I. 1903, pp. 61-63. Idem, Rec. Geol. Surv. Vic, 

vol. II., pt. 1, 1907, p. 78. 
Carboniferous. — Hinde, G. J. Geol. Mag. Dec. III. vol. VII. 

1890, pp. 199-203. 
Carbopermian. — De Koninck Mem. Geol. Surv. New South 

Wales, Pal. No. 6, 1898, pp. 128-140. 
Cainozoic. — Stolicka, F. Novara Exped., Geol. Theil., vol. I. 

pt. 2, pp. 87-158. Waters, A. W. Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc, vol XXXVII. 1881, pp. 309-347; ibid., vol. 

XXXVIII. 1882, pp. 257-276 and pp. 502-513; ibid., vol. 

XXXIX. 1883, pp. 423-443; ibid., vol. XL. 1884, pp. 674- 
i97; ibid., vol. XLI. 1885, pp. 279-310; ibid., vol. 
XLIII. 1887, pp. 40-72 and 337-350. MacGillivray, P. 
H. Mon. Tert. Polyzoa Vict., Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 
Vol. IV. 1895. Maplestone, C. M. "Further Descr. 
Polyzoa Vict.," Proc. Roy. Soc Vict., vol. XL (N.S.J > 
pt. I. 1898, pp. 14-21, et seqq. 



Cambrian. — Tate, R. Trans. R. Soc S. Austr., vol. XV. 1892, 
pp. 185, 186. Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. 
V. pt. 2, 1904, p. 101. Walcott, C. D. Smiths. Misc. 
Coll., vol. LIII. 1908, p. 109. Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. 
Vic, vol. XXIII. (N.S.), pt. I. 1911, pp. 310-313. 

Ordovician. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Pari. Papers, S. Aust., No. 
158, 1891, pp. 13, 14. Tate, R. Rep. Horn Exped., pt. 
3, 1896, pp. 110, 111. Chapman, F. Rec. Geol. Surv. 
Vict., vol. I. pt. 3, 1904, pp. 222-224. 

Silurian.— McCov, F. Prod. Pal. Vic. Dec. V. 1877, pp. 19- 
29. Eth., R. jnr. Rec. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, 
vol. 3, pt. 2, 1892, pp. 49-60 (Silurian and Devonian Pent- 
ameridae). Idem, Proc. Roy. Soc, Tas., (for 1896), 1897, 
pp. 38-41. De Koninck, L. G. Mem. Geol. Surv. New 
South Wales, Pal. No. 6, 1898, pp. 20-29. Dun, W. S. 
Rec Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. VII. pt. 4, 1904, 
pp. 318-325 (Silurian to Carboniferous). Ibid., vol. 
VIII. pt. 3, 1907, pp. 265-269. Chapman, F. Proc. R. 
Soc. Vict., vol. XVI. (N.S.), pt. 1, 1903, pp. 64-79. Ibid., 
vol. XXI. (N.S.), pt. 1, 1908, pp. 222, 223. Ibid., vol. 
XXVI. (N.S.) pt. I. 1913, pp. 99-113. 

Devonian.— McCov, F. Prod. Pal Vict., Dec IV. 1876, pp. 
16-18. Foord, A. H. Geol. Mag., Dec III. vol. VII. 
1890, pp. 100-102. Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. and Pal. 
Queensland, 1892, pp. 64-68. De Koninck, L. G. Mem. 
Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal., No. 6. 1898, pp. 
64-85. Chapman, F. Proc R. Soc. Vict., vol. XVIII. 

(N.S.), pt. 1, 1905, pp. 16-19. 

Carboniferous. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec Austr. Mus., vol. IV. 
No. 3, 1901, pp. 119, 120. Idem, Geol. Surv. W. Austr., 
Bull. No. 10, 1903, pp. 12-23. Dun, W. S. Rec. Geol. 
Surv. New South Wales, vol. VII., pt. 2, 1902. pp. 72-88 
and 91-93. 

Carbopermian. — Sowerby, G. B., in Strzelecki's Phvs. Descr. 
of New South Wales, etc., 1845, pp. 275-285. kcCoy, F. 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. XX. 1847, pp. 231-236. Foord, 
A. H. Geol. Mag. Dec III. vol. VII. 1890, pp. 105 and 
145-154. Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 
1892, pp. 225-264. De Koninck, L. G. Mem. Geol. Surv. 
New South Wales, Pal., No. 6, 1898, pp. 140-203. Dun, 
W. S. Rec. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. VIII. 
pt. 4, 1909, pp. 293-304. 

Lower Cretaceous. — Moore, C. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. 
XXVI. 1870, pp. 243-245. Etheridge, R. jnr. Mem. R. 
Soc. S. Austr., vol. II. pt. 1, 1902, pp. 8, 9. 


Upper Cretaceous. — Etlieridge, R. jnr. Geol. and Pal. Queens- 
land, 1892, p. 560. 

Cainozoic— McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. V. 1877, pp. 
11-13. Tate, R. Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., vol. III. 1880, 
pp. 140-170. Idem, ibid., vol. XXIII. 1899, pp. 250-259. 
Hutton, F. W. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. XXXVII. 1905, pp. 
474-481 (Revn. Tert. Brach.). 



Molluscan Characters. — 

The phylum or sub-kingdom Mollusca is a group of 
soft-bodied animals (mollis, soft), which, although 
having no external skeleton, usually possess the pro- 
tective covering of a shell. This shell is secreted 
from the outer skin or mantle, and is composed of 
carbonate of lime (calcareous) with a varying propor- 
tion of organic material. 
Hard Parts. — 

Fossil molluscan remains consist practically of the 
shells, but the calcareous apertural lid (operculum) 
of some kinds is often preserved, as in Turbo and 
Hyolithes; or the horny lids of others, as Bithynia of 
the European Pleistocene " brick earths." The cuttle- 
fishes have hard, horny beaks and internal bones, 
and the latter are frequently found fossil in Aus- 
Characters of Pelecypoda. — 

The class for first consideration is the important 
one of the Bivalved Mollusca, the LAMELLI- 
BRANCHIATA ("plate-gills") or PELECYPODA 



("hatchet foot"). The shells are double, hinged dor- 
sally and placed on either side of the animal, that is, 
they are left and right. The height is measured on a 
vertical line drawn from the beaks or umbones to the 
ventral margin. The length is the greatest distance 
between the margins parallel with a line drawn 
through the mouth and posterior adductor impres- 
sion. The thickness is measured by a line at right 
angles to the line of height. The shell being placed 
mouth forward, the valves are thus left and right. 
The anterior is usually shorter, excepting in some 
cases, as in Donax and Nucula. 
Hinge Structure. — 

In the absence of the animal, the character of the 
hinge-structure is very important. Some are with- 
out teeth (edentulous). The oldest forms have been 
grouped as the " Palaeoconcha, ' ' and it has been 
shown that here, although well-developed teeth were 
absent, the radial ribs of the surface and ventral areas 
were carried over to the dorsal margin and became a 
fixed character in the form of crenulations or primi- 
tive teeth. 

The taxodont type of hinge teeth shows alternating 
teeth and sockets, as in Nucula. 

The schizodont type is seen in the heavy, variable 
teeth of Trigonia and Schizodus. 

The isodont type of hingement is a modification of 
the taxodont, represented by two ridges originally 
divergent below the beak, and forming an interlock- 
ing series of two pairs of teeth and sockets as in 
Spondylus; or where the primitive hinge disappears 
as in Pecten, the divergent ridge-teeth (crura) may 
only partially develop. 



The dysodonts have a feeble hinge-structure 
derived from the external sculpture impinging on the 
hinge-line, as in Crenella. 

The pantodonta are an ancient palaeozoic group 
which seems allied to the modern teleodont or long 
toothed shells, but the laterals may exceed a pair in a 
single group, as in Allodesma. 

The diogenodonta have lateral and cardinal teeth 
upon a hinge-plate, but never more than two laterals 
and three cardinals in any one group, as in Crassa- 

The cyclodonta have extremely arched teeth, which 
curve out from under the beaks, as in Gardium. 


A — Ambonychia macroptera, Tate. Cambrian. S.Australia 
B -Grammysia cuneiformis, Eth. fil. Silurian. Victoria 
C— Panenka gippslandica, McCoy sp. Silurian. Victoria 
T) — Nucu a melbournensis, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 
E - Nuculites maccoyianus. Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 
F — Palaeoneilo victoriae, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 


The teleodonts include the more highly developed 
types of hinge, with attenuated teeth and sockets. 
Common shells of our coast, and from Cainozoic beds, 
belonging to this group are Venus, Mactra and Mere- 

The asthenodonta are boring and burrowing mol- 
luscs that have lost the hinge dentition from disuse as 
Corbula and Pholas. 
Cambrian Bivalve. — 

The earliest example of a bivalved shell in Austra- 
lian ro-cks is Ambonychia macroptera (Fig. 90 A), 
which occurs in the Cambrian Limestone of Curra- 
mulka, S. Australia. It is quite a small form, being 
less than a quarter of an inch in length. 
Ordovician Bivalve. — 

In the basal Ordovician mudstone of Heathcote, 
Victoria, there is a bivalve which in some respects 
resembles a Modiolopsis (1M. knowsleyensis), but the 
exact relationship is still doubtful. 
Silurian Bivalves. — 

The Silurian sandstones, mudstones, slates and 
limestones of Australia and New Zealand, unlike the 
older rocks just mentioned, contain a rich assem- 
blage of bivalve fossils. In Victoria the lower 
division or Melbournian stage contains the following 
principal genera : — Orthonota, Grammy sia, Lepto- 
domus, Edmondia, Cardiola, Ctenodonta, Nuculites, 
Nucula, Palaeoneilo, Conocardium, Modiolopsis and 
Paracyclas. The upper division or Yeringian stage 
contains other species of similar genera to those in 
the Melbournian, as Grammysia, Palaeoneilo and 
Conocardium; whilst Panenka, Mytilarca, Sphenotus, 


Actinodesma, Lnnulicardium, Actinopteria and 
Cypricardinia are, so far as known, peculiar to this 
and a still higher stage. Cardiola is a widely distri- 
buted genus, occurring as well in Tasmania ; whilst in 
Europe it is found both in Bohemia and Great Bri- 
tain. Its time-range in the northern hemisphere is 
very extensive, being found in beds ranging from 
Upper Ordovician to Devonian. Actinopteria is 
found also in New South Wales and New Zealand, 
and Pterinea and Actinodesma in New South Wales. 

The molluscs with a taxodont hinge-line (beset with 
numerous little teeth and sockets) are quite plentiful 
in the Australian Silurian; such as Nucida, a form 
common around Melbourne (N. melbournensis (Fig. 
90 D) ) ; Nnculites, which has an internal radial but- 
tress or clavicle separating the anterior muscle-scar 
from the shell-cavity, and which is found likewise 
in the Melbourne shales (N. maccoyianus (Fig. 
90 E) ); Ctenodonta, represented in both the Mel- 
bournian and Yeringian stages (C. portlocki) ; and 
Palaeoneilo, a handsome, subrostrate generic type 
with concentric lamellae or striae, commonest in the 
Melbournian, but occasionally found in the younger 
stage (P. victoriae Fig. 90 F, Melbournian; — P. 
raricostac, Yeringian). Conocardium is represented 
by two species in Victoria (C. bellulum and C. costa- 
tum) ; whilst in New South Wales C. davidis is found 
at Oakey Creek. In New Zealand Actinopteria and 
Pterinea occur in the Wangapeka series (Silurian). 

Devonian Bivalves. — 

The compact limestone and some shales of Middle 
Devonian age in the N.E. Gippsland area in Victoria, 



A — Mytilarca acutirostris, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 

B — Modiolopsis melbournensis, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 

C — Goniophora australis, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 

D — Paracyclas siluricus, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 

K — Actinopteria australis, Dun. Devonian. New South Wales 

F — Iyvriopeeten gracilis, Dun. Devonian. New South Wales 

contain several as yet undescribed species belonging 
to the genera Sphenohis, Actinodesma and Para- 

The genera Paracyclas, Aviculopecten and Pterinea 
have been recorded from New South Wales, chiefly 
from the Yass district. The derived boulders found 
in the Upper Cretaceous beds forming the opal-fields 
at White Cliffs, New South Wales, have been deter- 
mined as of Devonian age. They contain, amongst 
other genera, examples of Actinopteria (A. australis) , 
Lyriopecten (L. gracilis) (Fig. 91 F), and Lepto- 
desma (L. inflation and L. obesum). 

Carbopermian Bivalves. — 

One of the most prolific palaeozoic series for 
bivalved mollusca is the Carbopermian. To select 



A — Stutchburia farleyeasis, Kth. fil. Carbopermiau . N S. Wales 
R- Del topecten limaeformis. Morris sp. Carbopermijtn. N.S.Wales 
C — Aviculopecten sprenti, Johnston. Carbopernran v..s. Wales 
D -Chaenomya etheridgei, de Kon. Carbopermiau. N.S. Walts 
E— Pachydomus globosus J. de C. Sow. Carbopermiau. N.S. Wales 

from the numerous genera and species we may men- 
tion Stutcliburia farleyensis (Fig. 92 A) and 
Edmondia nobilissima from Farley, New South 
Wales; and Deltopecten limaeformis (Fig. 92 B), 
found in the Lower Marine Series at Bavensfield, New 
South Wales, and in the Upper Marine Series at 
Burragorang and Pokolbin in the same State, in 
Queensland at the Mount Britton Gold-field, and in 
Maria Id., Tasmania. Deltopecten fittoni occurs in 
both series in New South Wales, and in the Upper 
Marine Series associated with "Tasmanite shale" in 
Tasmania. Aviculopecten squamuliferus is a hand- 
some species found alike in Tasmania and New South 
Wales; whilst A. tenuicollis is common to W. Aus- 
tralia and New South Wales. Other characteristic 
bivalves of the Carbopermiau of New South Wales 



are Chaenomya etheridgei (Fig. 92 1)} and Pachy- 
domus globosus (Fig. 92 B). The gigantic Eury- 
desma cordatum is especially characteristic of the New 
South Wales Lower Marine Series, and is also found 
in Tasmania. All three species are found in Queens- 
Triassic Bivalves. — 

The Triassic rocks of New South Wales were ac- 
cumulated under either terrestrial, lacustrine, or 
brackish (estuarine) conditions. Hence the only 
bivalved mollusca found are referred to the fresh- 
water genera Unio (TJ. dunstani) and Unionella (U. 
bowralensis and U. camei (Fig. 93 A) ). The latter 
genus differs from Unio in the structure of the adduc- 
tor muscle-impressions. 


A — Unionella carnei- Eth. fil. Triassic New South Wales 
B— Mytilus problematicus, Zittel. Triassic. New Zealand 
C — Monotis salinaria. Zittel. Triassic. New Zealand 
D — Trig-onia moorei, I/ycett. Jurassic. W. Australia 
K— Astarte cliftoni, Moore, Jurassic. W. Australia 


The Queensland Trias (Burrum Formation) con- 
tains a solitary species of bivalved mollusca, Corbi- 
cula burrumensis. This genus is generally found 
associated with freshwater or brackish conditions. 

In New Zealand marine Triassic beds occur, con- 
taining, amongst other genera, a species of Lecla. In 
the succeeding Wairoa Series the interesting fossil, 
Daonella lommeli occurs. This shell is typical of 
the Norian (Upper Trias) of the Southern Tyrol. 
Above the Daonella bed occurs the Trigonia bed, with 
that genus and Edmondia. In the next younger 
stage, the Otapiri Series, near Nelson, there are fine- 
grained sandstones packed full of the remains of 
Mytilus "problematic us (Fig. 93 B) and Monotis 
salinaria (Fig. 93 C), the latter also a Noriari fossil. 

Jurassic Bivalves. — 

Jurassic bivalved molluscs are plentiful in the W. 
Australian limestones, as at Greenough River. 
Amongst others may be mentioned Cucullaea semi- 
striata, Ostrea, Gryphaea, Trigonia moorei (Fig. 93 
D), Pecten cinctus, Ctenostreon pectiniforme and 
Astarte cliftoni (Fig. 93 E). Several of the species 
found are identical with European Jurassic fossils. 

Jurassic strata in Victoria, being of a fresh- 
water and lacustrine nature, yield only species of 
TJnio, as TJ. dacombei, and TJ. stirlingi. 

The Jurassic beds of S. Australia contain a species 
of TJnio named TJ. eyrensis. In the same strata which 
contains this shell, plant remains are found, as 
Cladophlebis and Thinnfeldia, two well-known types 
of Jurassic ferns. 



Lower Cretaceous Bivalves. — 

In Queensland the Lower Cretaceous limestones 
and marls contain a large assemblage of bivalves, 
the more important of which are Nucula truncata 
(Fig. 94 A ), Maccoyella reflecta (Fig. 94 B), M. 
barkleyi, Pecti n socialis and FissHuntila clarkei (Fig. 
94 C), from Wollumbilla : and Inoceramus pernoides, 


A— Nucula truncata, Moore. Iy. Cretaceous. South Australia 

B — Maccoyella reflecta, Moore sp. Up. and I,. Cretaceous. Q'lancL 

C— Fissilunula clarkei, Moore sp. Up. and I,. Cretaceous. Q'land. 

D — Inoceramus carsoni, McCoy. X,. Cretaceous. Queensland 

K — Cyrenopsis opallites. Kth. fil. Up. Cretaceous. New South Wales 

F— Conch othyra parasitica, Hutton. Cretaceous. New Zealand 

/. carsoni and Amelia hughendenensis from the Flin- 
der's River (the latter also from New South Wales). 
In the Lake Eyre District of S. Australia we find 
Maccoyella ~bar~kleyi, which also occurs in Queensland 
and New South Wales (at White Cliffs), Trigonia 
cinctuta, Mytilus rugocostatus and Modiola eyrensis. 
The handsome bivalve, Pleuromya plana occurs near 
Broome in W. Australia. 


Upper Cretaceous Bivalves.— 

The Upper Cretaceous or Desert Sandstone at Mary- 
borough, Queensland, has yielded amongst others, 
the following shells : — Nucula gigantea, Maccoy- 
ella reflecta (also found in the Lower Cretaceous of 
•Queensland, New South Wales and S. Australia), and 
Fissilunula clarkei (also found in the L. Cretaceous 
of New South Wales, Queensland and S. Australia). 
Some of these beds, however, which were hitherto 
believed to belong to the Upper and Lower Series 
respectively may yet prove to be on one horizon — the 
Lower Cretaceous. Cyrenopsis opallites (Fig. 94 E) 
of White Cliffs, New South Wales, appears to be a 
truly restricted Upper Cretaceous species. 

The Cretaceous of New Zealand (Amuri System) 
■contains Trigonia sulcata, Inoceramus sp. and the 
•curious, contorted shell, Conchothyra parasitica (Fig. 
94 F) which is related to ■ Pugnellus, a form usually 
considered as a subgenus of Strombus. 

From Papua an Inoceramus has been recorded from 
probable Cretaceous beds. 

Cainozoic Bivalves. — 

In Victoria, South Australia, and the N.W. of Tas- 
mania, as well as in New Zealand, Cainozoic marine 
b>eds are well developed, and contain an extensive 
bivalved molluscan fauna. Of these fossils only a 
few common and striking examples can here be 
noticed, on account of the limits of the present work. 
The commonest genera are: — Ostrea, Placunanomia, 
Dimya, Spondylus, Lima, Pecten, Area, Barbatia, 
Plagiarca, Cucullaea, Glycimeris, Limopsis, Nucula, 
Leda, Trigonia, Cardita, Cuna, Crassatellitp.s, Car- 



A— Dimya dissimilis, Tate. Balcombian. Victoria 

B— Spondylus pseud oradula, McCoy. Balcombian. Victoria 

C— Pecten polymorph oides, Zittel. Janjukian. South Australia 

D — Iyedavagans. Tate. Janjukian. South Australia 

K— Modiola praerupta, Pritchard. Balcombian. Victoria 

diam, Protocardium, Chama, Meretrix, Venus 
(Chione), Dosinea, Gari, Mactra, Corbula, Lucina, 
Tellina, Semele and Myodora. 
Persistent Species. — 

To mention a few species of persistent range, from 
Balcombian to Kalimnan, we may cite the following 
from the Cainozoic of southern Australia: — Dimya 
dissimilis (Fig. 95 A), Spondylus pseudoradula (Fig. 
95 B), Lima (Limatula) jeffreysiana, Pecten poly- 
morphoides (found also in the Oamaru Series, New 
Zealand) (Fig. 95 C), Am-usium zitteli (found also in 
both the Waimangaroa and Oamaru Series of New 
Zealand), Barbatia celleporacea, Cucullaea corioensis, 
Limopsis maccoyi, Nucula tenisoni, Leda vagans (Fig. 
95 D), Corbula ephamilla and Myodora tenuilirata. 



Balcombian Bivalves. — 

On the other hand, many species have a restricted 
range, and these are invaluable for purposes of strati- 
graphical correlation. For example, in the Balcom- 
bian we have Modiola praerupta (Fig. 95 E), Modio- 
laria balcombei, Cuna regularis, Cardium cuculloides T 
Cryptodon mactraeformis, Vertieordia pectinata and 
V. excavata. 


A— Modiola pueblensis Pritchard. Janjukian. Victoria 

B— Cardita tasmanica, Tate. Janjukian. Tasmania 

C — I.ucina planatella, Tate. Janjukian. Tasmania 

D— Ostrea manubriata. Tate. Kalimnan. Victoria 

E— L,imopsis beaumariensis, Chap. Kalimnan. Victoria 

F— Venus (Chione) subroborata, Tate sp. Kalimnan. Victoria 

Janjukian Bivalves. — 

In the Janjukian Series restricted forms of bivalves 
are exceptionally numerous, amongst them being: — 
Dirnya sigillata, Plicatula ramulosa, Lima polynema, 
Pecten praecAirsor, P. eyrei, P. gambierensis, Pinna 
cordata, Modiola pueblensis (Fig. 96 A), Area dis- 


similis, Limopsis multiradiata, L. insolita, Leda lep- 
torhyncha, L. crebrecostata, Cardita maudensis, C. 
tasmanica (Fig. 96 B), Cuna radiata, Lepton crassum, 
Cardium pseudomagnum, Venus (Chione) multi- 
taeniata, Solenocurtus legrandi, Lucina planatella 
(Fig. 96 C), Tellina porrecta and Myodora lamellata. 
In Papua a Pecten (P. novaeguineae) has been re- 
corded from the 1 Lower Pliocene of Yule Island. 

Kalimnan Bivalves. — 

The Kalimnan beds contain the following 
restricted or upward ranging species: — Ostrea 
arenicola, 0. manubriata (Fig. 96 D), Pecten 
antiaustralis (also in the Werrikooian Series), 
Perna percrassa, Mytilus hamiltonensis, Glycimeris 
halli, Limopsis beaumariensis (also Werrikooian) 
(Fig. 96 E), Leda crassa (also living), Trigonia 
howitti, Cardita solida, C. calva (also living), 
Erycina micans, Meretrix paucirugata, Sunetta gib- 
berula, Venus (Chione) subroborata (Fig. 96 F), 
Donax depressa, Corbula scaphoides (also living), 
Barnea tiara, Lucina affinis, Tellina albinelloides and 
Myodora corrugata. 

Werrikooian Bivalves. — 

The next stage, the Werrikooian (Upper Pliocene), 
contains a large percentage of living species, as Ostrea 
angasij Placunanomia ione (ranging down into Jan- 
jukian), Glycimeris radians, Leda crassa (also a com- 
mon Kalimnan fossil), various species of Venus 
(Chione), as V. strigosa and V. placida, and Barnea 



Pleistocene Bivalves. — 

The bivalved shells of the Pleistocene are similar to 
those now found living round the Australian coast, 
as Pecten asperrimus, Mytilus latus, Leda crass®, 
Soletellina biradiata and Spisula parva. 

Pleistocene shells of bivalved genera occur in the 
coastal hills of Papua, including the following : — Cul- 
tellus, Corbula, Mactra, Tellina, Venus iCkione), 
Dione, Dosinea, Leda and Area. 

The SCAPHOPODS ("digger foot") or the "Ele- 
plant-tusk shells" are adapted, by their well- 
developed foot, to burrow into the mud and sand. 


A — Deutalium huttoiii, Bather. Jurassic. New Zealand 

B — Dentalium mantelli, Zittel. Cainozoic. Victoria 

C— Chelodes calceoloides, Kth. fil. Silurian. New South Wales 

D-Ischnochiton granulosus, Ashby and Torr sp. Cainozoic (Bale). 

K — Cryptoplax pritchardi, Hall. Cainozoic (Kalimnan). Victoria 


Devonian Scaphopods. — 

This group of molhisca makes its first appearance 
in Australasian sediments in the Middle Devonian 
(Murrumhidgee beds) of New South Wales, repre- 
sented by Dentalium tenuissirnum. 

Jurassic Scaphopods. — 

In the Jurassic strata of the Mataura Series of New 
Zealand, Dentalium huttoni (Fig. 97 A) occurs at 
the Kowhai River and Wilberforce. 

Cretaceous Scaphopods. — 

Dentalium wollumbillensis occurs in the drab and 
dark-coloured limestones of the Lower Cretaceous 
of the Lake Byre Basin in S. Australia, and the same 
species is also found in the Lower Cretaceous (Roll- 
ing Downs Formation) of Wollumbilla, Queensland. 

Gainozoie Scaphopods. — 

The Cainozoic beds both of New Zealand and south- 
ern Australia yield many species of Dentalium, the 
commonest and most widely distributed being the 
longitudinally ribbed D. mantelli (Fig. 97 B), which 
ranges from the Balcombian to the TVerrikooian 
stages in Australia, and is also typical of the Oamaru 
Series in New Zealand, where it is accompanied by 
the ponderous species, D. gigantenm, which attained 
a length of over six inches. Another form common 
in our Cainozoics is the smooth-shelled D. subfissura; 
this also has a wide range, namely Balcombian to 

Palaeozoic Chitons. — 

The POLYPLACOPHORA or Chitons ("Mail- 
shells"), first appeared in the Ordovician. In Austra- 


lia Chelodes calceoloides (Fig. 97 C) is found in the 
Silurian of Derrengullen Creek, Yass, New South 
Wales; and another species of the genus is found in 
beds of the same age at Lilydale, Victoria. Between 
that period and the Cainozoic or Tertiary there is a 
gap in their history in Australia. 

Cainozoic Chitons. — 

Ischnochiton granulosus (Fig. 97 D) is a Bal- 
combian species of the modern type of ' ' mail-shell, ' ' 
occurring not infrequently in the clays of Balcombe's 
Bay, Port Phillip, Victoria. Cryptoplax pritchardi 
(Fig. 97 B) is a curious form belonging to the atten- 
uated, worm-like group of the Cryptoplacidae, until 
lately unknown in the fossil state; it is found in the 
Kalimnan Series near Hamilton, Victoria. Several 
other genera of the chitons are found fossil in the 
Australian Cainozoics which still live on our coasts, 
as Lorica, Plaxiphora and Chiton. The first-named 
genus is represented fossil by Lorica duniana from 
the Turrit ella bed (Janjukian) of Table Cape, Tas- 

Characters of Gasteropoda. — 

The GASTEROPODA ("belly-foot") or univalve 
shells possess a muscular foot placed beneath the 
stomach and viscera. In the Heteropoda this foot is 
modified as a vertical fin, and in the Pteropoda as 
two wing-like swimming membranes close to the head. 
The mantle lobe is elevated along the back like a 
hood, and its surfaces and edges secrete the shell 
which contains the animal. The shell is typically a 
cone (example, Patella or Limpet) which is often 


spirally coiled either in a plane (ex. Planorbis), coni- 
eally turbinoid (ex. Trockus), or turreted (ex. 
Turritella). The body and shell are attached by 
muscles, the spiral forms being attached to the colum- 
ella or axial pillar, and the bowl-shaped forms to the 
inner surface of the shell. 

Gasteropod shells are normally right-handed 
(dextral), but a few genera as Clausilia, Bulinus 
and Physa, are left-handed (sinistral). The 
height or length of the shell is measured from 
the apex to the lower margin of the mouth. 
In coiled shells we may regard them as a 
more or less elongated cone wound round a cen- 
tral pillar, the columella, or around a central tube. 
A turn or coil of the shell is a whorl, and together, 
with the exception of the last, form the spire. The 
line between two adjacent whorls is the suture. When 
the columella is solid the shell is said to be imperfor- 
ate, and when a central tube is left by the imperfect 
fusion of the whorls, it is perforate. The opening of 
the tubular columella is termed the umbilicus, and 
this is sometimes contracted by the encroachment of 
shell matter termed the callus. The aperture is 
entire when the rim is uninterrupted ; and channelled 
when there is a basal notch, where the siphon which 
conducts water to the gills is lodged. 

As a rule the large heavy gasteropods inhabit 
shallow water. The following living genera are 
characteristic of rocky shore-lines ; Risella, Buccinum, 
Purpura and Patella. Genera typical of sandy 
shores are Nassa, Natica, Cypraea, Turritella and 



Cambrian Gasteropods. — 

Prom the Cambrian of South Australia Prof. Tate 
described some minute Gasteropods which he referred 
to the genera Stenotheca (8. rugosa, var. paupera), 
Ophileta (0. subangulata) (Fig. 98 A), and Platy- 
ceras (P. etheridgei) . In these beds at Curra- 
mulka the following Pteropods were found by the 
same authority, viz., Salterella planoconvexa, Hyo- 
lithes communis (Fig. 98 C) and H. conularioides. 

The Cumbrian Limestone of the Kimberley District, 
W. Australia, contains the characteristic Pteropod 
Salterella hardmani (Fig. 98 B). The shell is a 
conical tube, straight or slightly curved, and measur- 
ing scarcely an inch in length. 


A— Ophileta subangulata, Tate. Cambrian. South Australia 
B— Salterella hardmani, Foord. Cambria n. West Australia 
C — Hyolithes communis. Billings. Cambrian. South Australia 
D— Scenella tenuistriata, Chapm. Cambrian Victoria 
E - Raphistoma browni Eth. fil. Ordovician. South Australia 
F— Helicotoma johnstoni. Eth. fil. Silurian. Tasmania 


The Upper Cambrian of the Mersey River District 
in Tasmania has afforded some doubtful examples of 
the genus Ophileta. 

In the Upper Cambrian Limestones of the Dolo- 
drook Valley, near Mt. Wellington, Victoria, a minute 
limpet shaped G-asteropod occurs, named Scenella 
tenuistriata (Fig. 98 D). 

Ordovician Gasteropods. — 

Ordovician limestones with fossil shells occur in 
the Leigh's Creek District in South Australia, and 
also at Tempe Downs and Petermann and Laurie's 
Creeks, W. of Alice Springs. The euomphaloid 
shell Ophileta gilesi was described from Laurie's 
Creek, and Eunema larapinta from the Tempe Downs. 
A pleurotomarid, Rapliistoma brotvni (Fig. 98) 
occurs near Leigh's Creek, and at Laurie's and Peter- 
mann Creeks. A Pteropod, Hyolitkes leptns. has 
been described from the Lower Ordovician of Coole 
Barghurk Creek, near Meredith, Victoria. 

Silurian Gasteropods.— 

The Silurian Gasteropods are fairly well repre- 
sented, especially in the upper stage, and are widely 
distributed throughout the Australian fossiliferous 
localities. Moreover, some of the species are 
identical with those found as far off as North 
America and Europe. In Victoria the shales and 
sandstones of the lower stage (Melbournian) contain 
the genera Bellerophon, Cyrtolites and Loxonema. 
The Pteropoda include Tentaculites, Coleolus, Hyo- 
lithes and Conularia (C. sowerbii (Fig. 99 F), a 
species also found in Great Britain). The Victorian 
limestones and mudstones of the upper stage (Yering- 



A— Hyolithes spryi, Chapm. Silurian (Melb.) Victoria 
B -Gyrodoma etheridgei, Cressw sp. Silurian (Yeringian). Vict. 
C— Bellerophon cresswelli. Kth. fill. Silurian (Yeringian). Victoria 
D— Kuomphalus northi, Kth. fil. sp. Silurian (Yeringian). Victoria 
E— Trochonema montgomerii. Kth. fil. so. Silurian. Tasmania 
F— Conularia sowerbii, Defr. Silurian (Yeringian). Victoria 

ian) are somewhat rich in Gasteropods, such genera 
occurring as Pleurotomaria, Phanerotrema (with can- 
cellated shell and large slit-band), Murchisonia, 
Gyrodoma, Bellerophon, Trematonotus (a spiral shell 
with a large trumpet-shaped mouth and a dorsal row 
of perforations in place of a slit-band), Euomphalus, 
Cyclonema, Trochus (Scalaetrochus), Niso (Veto- 
tuba), Loxonema, Platyceras and Capulus. The 
section Pteropoda contains Tentaculites, Hyolithes 
and Conularia. 

In the Silurian of New South Wales the chief 
Gasteropod genera are Bellerophon (B. jukesi), 
Euomphalus, Omphalotrochus, and Conularia (C. 
sowerbii.) . 



In Tasmania are found Raphiskoma, Murchisonia, 
Bellerophon, Helicotoma, Trochonema and Tenta- 
Devonian Gasteropods. — 

The derived boulders of the White Cliffs opal field 
have been referred to the Devonian system, but of 
this there is some doubt, as the Gasteropods noted 
from these boulders closely resemble those of the 
Silurian fauna: they are Murchisonia Euomphalus 
(E. culleni), and Loxonema. The genus Murchisonia 
has also been recorded from the Baton River, New 
Zealand (Wangepeka Series) by MacKay. 

The Middle Devonian Gasteropod fauna in Vic- 
toria, as found in the Buchan and Bindi Limestones, 
comprises Murchisonia, Trochus, and Platyceras. 


A — Gosseletina australis, Eth. fil. sp. Carboniferous. N.S. Wales 
B — Yvania konincki, Eth. fil Carboniferous. N.S.Wales 
C — Iyoxonema babbindoonensis, Eth. fil. Carboniferous. N.S. Wales 
D— Pleurotomaria (Ptychomphalina) morrisiana, McCoy. Carboper- 

mian. N.S. Wales 
I$— Platyschisma oculum, Sow. sp. Carbopermian. N.S.Wales 
F— Murchisonia carinata, Eth. Carbopermian. Queensland 


In New South Wales the best known genera are 
Pleurotomaria, Murchisonia, Bellerophon, Euom- 
phalus and Loxonema. The two latter genera have 
also been obtained at Barker Gorge, Western Austra- 
Carboniferous Gasteropods. — 

Carboniferous Gasteropoda have been found in New 
South Wales, belonging to the genera Gosseletina (6r. 
australis) (Fig. 100 A) and Yvania (Y. konincki) 
(Fig. 100 B), both of which have their countertypes 
in the Carboniferous of Belgium. Y. konincki is 
also found in the Carbopermian (Gympie beds) of 
Rockhampton, Queensland, while Y. levellii is found 
in the Carbopermian of Western Australia. 
Carbopermian Gasteropods. — 

The Carbopermian gasteropods of New South Wales 
are Pleurotomaria (Mourlonia), Keeneia platyschis- 
moides, Murchisonia, Euomphalus, Platyschisma (P. 
oculum) (Fig. 100 E), Loxonema and Macrocheilus. 
Examples of the genus Conularia are sometimes 
found, probably attaining a length, when complete, of 
40 centimetres. 

In Tasmania we find Conularia tasmanica, a hand- 
some Pteropod, also of large dimensions. Platy- 
schisma, Pleurotomaria (Mourlonia), Bellerophon 
and Porcellia are amongst the Carbopermian Gastero- 
pods of Queensland. 

In Western Australia Pleurotomaria (Mourlonia) r 
Bellerophon, Euomphalus, Euphemus, Platyceras, 
and Loxonema occur in the Carbopermian. 
Jurassic Gasteropods. — 

Jurassic gasteropods are found sparingly in the 



ENLARGED ' ..■*£.,. • 

A— Turbo australis, Moore. Jurassic. West Australia 

B— Rissoina australis, Moore. Jurassic. West Australia 

C — Natica ornatissima. Moore. Cretaceous. Queensland 

D — Pseudamaura variabilis, Moore sp. Cretaceous. Queensland 

K~Rostel1aria waiparensis. Hector. Cretaceous. New Zealand 

limestone of the Geraldton District and other loca- 
lities in "Western Australia. The more important of 
these are Pleurotomaria (P. greenoughiensis) , Turbo 
(T. australis) (Fig. 101 A) and Rissoina (R. austra- 
lis) (Fig. 101 B). 
Cretaceous Gasteropods. — 

The Queensland gasteropod fauna comprises 
Cinulia a typical Cretaceous genus, Actaeon and 
Natica. These occur in the Lower Cretaceous or 
Eolling Downs Formation. Cinulia is also found in 
South Australia at Lake Eyre with Natica (N. orna- 
tissima) (Fig. 101 C). Pseudamaura variabilis (Fig. 
101 D) is found in New South Wales, Queensland and 
South Australia ; whilst Anchura wilkinsoni occurs in 
Queensland and South Australia. 


In New Zealand the Waipara Greensands (Cretace- 
ous) contain a species of Rostellaria (R. waiparensis) 
(Fig. 101 E). 

Oainozoic Gasteropods. — 

Cainozoic Gasteropods are exceedingly abundant in 
beds of that system in Australasia. The Cainozoic 
marine fauna in Australia is practically restricted to 
the States of Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania ; 
whilst New Zealand has many species in common with 

Genera. — 

The commonest genera of the marine Cainozoic or 
Tertiary deposits are : — Haliotis, Fissurellidea, Emar- 
ginula, Subemarginula, Astralium, Liotia. Gibbula, 
Eulima, Niso, Odostomia, Scala, Solarium, Crepidula, 
Calyptraea, Natica, Rissoa, Turrit ella, Siliquaria, 
Cerithium, Newtoniella, Tylospira, Cypraea, Trivia, 
Morio, Semicassis, Lotorium, Murex, Typhis, Colum- 
bella, Phos, Nassa, Siphonalia, Euthria (Dennantia), 
Fusus, Columbarium, Fasciolaria, Latirus, Margin- 
ella, Mitra, Volutilithes, Voluta, Harpa, Ancilla, Can- 
cellaria, Terebra, Pleurotoma, Drillia, Conns, Bullin- 
ella and Vaginella. 

Persistent Species. — 

Amongst the Cainozoic Gasteropoda of southern 
Australia which have a persistent range through 
Balcombian to Kalimnan times, we find: — Niso psila, 
Crepidula unguiformis (also Werrikooian and Re- 
cent), Natica perspectiva, N. hamiltonensis, Turri- 
tella murrayana, Cerithium, apheles, Cypraea lepto- 
rhyncha, Lotorium gibbum, Volutilithes antiscalaris 



(also in Werrikooian), Marginella propinqua, Ancilla 
pseudaustralis, Conns ligatns and Bullinella exigua. 

Balcombian Gasteropods. — 

Species restricted to the Balcombian stage include 
Scala dolicho, Seguenzia radialis, Dissocheilus ebar- 
neu's, Trivia erugala, Cypraea ampullacea (Fig. 
102 A), C. gastroplax, Colubraria Icptoskeles, Murex 
didymus (Fig. 102 B), Ebiirnopsis aulacoessa (Fig. 
102 C), Fasciolaria concinna, Mitra uniplica, Harpa 


A — Cypraea ampullacea, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) Victoria 
B— Murex didymus, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) Victoria 
C — Eburnopsis aulacoessa, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) Victoria 
D — Cancellaria calvulata, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) Victoria 
K — Vaginella eligmostoma, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) Victoria 

abbreviata, Ancilla lanceolata, Cancellaria calvulata 
(Fig. 102 D), Buchozia oblongula, Pleurotoma optata, 
Terebra leptospira and Vaginella eligmostoma (Fig. 
102 E), (also found at Gellibrand River). 



A — Kutrochus fontinalis, Pritchard. Cainozoic (Janjukian). Vict. 
B — Morio wilsoni, Tate. Cainozoic (Janjukian). Victoria 
C — Scala lampra, Tate sp. Cainozoic (Janjukian). South Australia 
D— Natica gibbosa, Hutton. Cainozoic (Janjukian). South Australia 
E — Volutilithes anticingulatus, McCoy sp. Cainozoic (Janjukian). 

F— Struthiolaria sulcata, Hutton. Cainozoic ( A watere series). New 


Janjukian Gasteropods. — 

Species of Gasteropods restricted to the Janjukian 
stage include : — Pleurotomaria tertiaria, Haliotis 
mooraboolensis, Liotia lamellosa, Thalotia alternate/,, 
Eutrochus fontinalis (Fig. 103 A), Astralhim hud- 
sonianum, Turbo atkinsoni, Odostomia polita, Scala 
lampra (Fig. 103C), Natica gibbosa (Fig. 103D) (also 
found in the Pareora Series of the Oamaru system 
and in the Wanganui beds of New Zealand), Calyp- 
traea subtabnlata, Turritella aldingae, Cerithiopsis 
mulderiy Cerithium flerningtonense, Cypraea platy- 
rhyncha, C. consobrina, Morio wilsoni (Fig. 103 B), 
Lotorium abbotti, Murex otwayensis, Eburnopsis 



iesselatus, Tudicla costata, Latirus semiundulatus, 
Fusus meredithae, Columbarium spiniferum, Voluta 
pueblensis, V. heptagonalis, V. macroptera (also re- 
corded from Hairs Sound, Papua) (Fig. 103 B), 
Volutilithes anticingulatus (also from Papua), Harpa 
elafhrata, Bela woodsi, Bathytoma paracantha and 
Volvulella inflatior. 

Dolium costatum, allied to the "Fig-Shell" has 
been noted from the Cainozoic clays ( ? Lower Plio- 
cene), Yule Island, Papua. 


A — Bankivia howitti, Pritchard. Cainozoic (Kal.) Victoria 
B — Eglisia triplicata, Tate sp. Cainozoic (Kal.) Victoria 
C — Voluta masoni, Tate. Cainozoic (Kal.) Victoria 
D— Ancilla papillata. Tate sp. Cainozoic (Kal.) Victoria 
K — Terebra geniculata, Tate. Cainozoic (Kal.) Victoria 
F— -Helix simsoniana, Johnston. Pleistocene. Tasmania 

Kalimnan Gasteropods. — 

Species of Gasteropods restricted to the Kalimnan 
stage, or only passing upwards include: — Bankivia 
howitti (Fig. 104 A), Liopyrga quadricingulata, 
€alyptraea corrugata, Natica subvarians, Turritella 


pagodula, Eglisia triplicata (Fig. 104 B), Tylospira 
clathrata, Cypraea jonesiana, Lotorium ovoideum r 
Sistrum subreticulatum, Voluta masoni (Fig. 104 C), 
Ancilla papillata (Fig. 104D), Cancellaria wannonen- 
sis, Drillia wanganuiensis (also in the Petane Series 
of New Zealand), Terebra catenifera, T. geniculate- 
(Fig. 104 E) and Ringicula tatei. 

New Zealand Cainozoic Gasteropods. — 

Characteristic Gasteropoda of the Oamaru Series 
in New Zealand are Pleurotomaria tertiaria (also in 
the Australian Janjukian), Scala lyrata, Natica dar- 
winii, Turrit ella caver sham ensis, Ancilla hebera (also- 
in the Australian Balcombian and Janjukian) and 
Pleurotoma hamiltoni. Gasteropods of the Awatere 
Series in New Zealand are Natica ovata, Striithiolaria 
sulcata (Fig. 103 F), and Scaphella corrugata (found 
also in the Oamaru Series). The Putiki beds of the 
Petane Series in New Zealand contain Trophon 
expansus, Pisania dreivi and Pleurotoma wanganuien- 
Werrikooian Gasteropods. — 

The marine gasteropods of the Werrikooian of 
southern Australia, as found at Limestone Greek, 
Glenelg River, Western Victoria, and the Moorabool 
Viaduct near Geelong, are nearly all living at the 
present time, with the exception of a few older 
Cainozoic species. Amongst these latter are Conus 
ralphi, Pleurotoma murnclaliana, Volutilithes antis- 
calaris and Columbarium craspedotum. 
Pleistocene Gasteropoda. — 

The Pleistocene land mollusca, and especially the 
gasteropods of Australia, present some striking 


points of interest, for whilst most of the species 
are still living, some appear to be extinct. The 
travertine deposits of Geilston, near Hobart, Tas- 
mania contain Helix geilstonensis and II. Stanley ana,. 
the latter still living. The calcareous Helix sand- 
stone of the islands in Bass Strait are largely com- 
posed of shells of that genns and generally represent 
consolidated sand-dnnes which have undergone a 
certain amount of elevation. One of the preva- 
lent species is Helix simsoniana (Fig. 104 F), a hand- 
some keeled form, somewhat related to the living H. 
launcestonensis. It is found in some abundance in 
the Kent's Group and in the adjacent islands. 

The large ovoid land-shells, Panda atomata, al- 
though still existing, are found associated with ex- 
tinct marsupials, as Thylacoleo, in the stalagmitic 
floor of the Buchan Caves, Gippsland. 

The ZWprofodow-breccias of Queensland have 
afforded several species of Helix and other land-shells, 
as well as the brackish-water genus Melania. The 
Raised Beaches of Queensland, New South Wales, 
Victoria, and Tasmania all contain species of land 
and freshwater shells identical with those now found 
living in the same localities. 

The Raised Beaches of New Zealand contain numer- 
ous marine shells all having living representatives. 
Some of these elevated beaches occur as high as 150 
feet above sea-level at Taranaki, and at 200 feet near 
Cape Palliser in Cook Strait. 

Many species of Pleistocene Mollusca identical with 
"•"hose now living in Torres Strait, the China Sea and 
the Philippine Islands are found in Papua. They 


occur in the greenish sandy clay of the hills near the 
present coast line and comprise the following genera 
of Gasteropods: — Ranella, Nassa, Mitra, Oliva, Tere-. 
bra, ConuSy 8 trombus, Bulla and Atys. 
Characters of Cephalopoda. — 

The highest class of the mollusca is the CEPHALO- 
PODA ("head-feet"). In these shell-fish the ex- 
tremity of the body or foot is modified, and furnished 
with eyes, a funnel and tentacles. It has also strong 
horny beaks or jaws which make it a formidable 
enemy to the surrounding life in the sea. In the 
chambered forms of this group the animal partitions 
off its shell at regular intervals, like the Pearly 
Nautilus and the Ammonite, inhabiting only the last 
chamber cavity, but still communicating with the 
earlier series by a continuous spiral tube (siphuncle). 
In some forms like the living squid and the extinct 
Belemnite, the shell is internal and either spoon- 
shaped, or dart-shaped, that is, subcylindrical and 
Characters of Cephalopod Shells. — Nautiloidea.— 

In geological times the nautiloid forms were the 
first to appear (in the Ordovician), and they were 
-either straight shells, as Orthoceras, or only slightly 
curved, as Cyrtoceras. Later on they became more 
closely coiled, and as they were thus less likely to be 
damaged, they gradually replaced the straight forms. 

The Ammonites have the siphuncle close to the out- 
side of the shell, whilst in the Nautilus it is more or 
less median. The sutures or edges of the septa in 
Nautilus and its allies are curved or wavy, but not so 
sharply flexed or foliaceous as in Ammonites. The 


Nautiloidea range from the Ordovician and are still 
found living. 
Ammonoidea. — 

The Ammonoidea appear in Devonian times and die 
out in the Cretaceous. They were very abundant in 
Jurassic times, especially in Europe. 
Belemnoidea. — 

The Belemnoidea, ranging from the Trias to Eocene, 
comprise the extinct Belemnites, the interesting genus 
Spirulirostra of Miocene times, and the living Spirilla. 
Sepioidea. — 

The Sepioidea or true Cuttle-fishes ("pen-and-ink 
fish") range from the Trias to the present day. 
Octopoda. — 

The Octopoda, with Octopus and Argonauta (the 
paper "Nautilus'') are present-day modifications. 
The male of the latter is without a shell, the female 
only being provided with a delicate boat-shaped shell 
secreted by the mantle and the two fin-like expansions 
of the dorsal arms. 
Ordovician Cephalopods. — 

The Ordovician cephalopods of Australasia are not 
numerous, and are, so far as known, practically re- 
stricted to the limestones of the Larapintine series at 
Laurie's Creek and Tempe Downs, in Central South 
Australia. Amongst them may be mentioned Endo- 
ceras warburtoni (Fig. 105 A), (a straight form in 
which the siphuncle is partially filled with organic 
deposits) ; Orthoceras gossei; 0. ibiciforme; Trocko- 
ceras reticostatum (a coiled form) ; and Actinoceras 
tatei (a genus characterised by swollen siphuncular 
beads between the septa). 



A — Endoceras warburtoni Kth. fil. Ordovician. South Australia 

B-Orthoceras lineare, Miinstersp. Silurian (Yer.) Victoria 

C — Cycloceras ibex, Sow. sp. Silurian (Melb.) Victoria 

D — Phragmocerassubtrigonum, McCoy. Mid Devonian. Victoria 

E — Gastrioceras jack sou i. Eth. fil. Carbopermian. W.Australia 

F — Agathiceras micromphalum, Morris sp. Cai bopermian. N.S.W. 

Silurian Cephalopods. — 

Silurian cephalopods are more generally distri- 
buted, and in Victoria constitute an important factor 
in the molluscan fauna of that system. Orthoceras 
and Cycloceras are the best known genera, represented 
by Orthoceras capillosum, found near Kilmore, Vic- 
toria; 0. lineare (Fig. 105 B), from the Upper Yarra ; 
Cycloceras bullatam, from the Melbournian of Col- 
lingwood and Whittlesea; and C. ibex (Fig. 105 C) 
from South Yarra and Flemington, in both Mel- 
bournian shale and sandstone. The latter species 
occurs also at Rock Flat Creek, New South Wales. 
Other Victorian species are Kionoceras striatopuncta- 
tum, a well-known European fossil with a reticulated 


and beaded ornament, found near Warburton and at 
McMahon's Creek, Upper Yarra. 

Orthoceras is also recorded from Tasmania and 
from the Wangapeka beds of Baton Kiver, New Zea- 
land. Cycloliiuites, a partially coiled nautilian is 
recorded from Bowning, near Yass, New South Wales ; 
whilst the closely related Lituites is noted from the 
Silurian of Tasmania. 

Devonian Cephalopods. — 

The only genus of cephalopoda at present recorded 
from the Devonian of Victoria is Phragmoceras (P. 
subtrigonum) (Fig. 105 D), whicli occurs in the 
Middle Devonian Limestone of Buchan, E. Gippsland. 
From beds of similar age in New South Wales Ortho- 
ceras, Cyrtoceras and Goniatites have been noted; 
whilst the latter genus also occurs near Kimberley, 
Western Australia. In Queensland Gyroceras philpi 
is a characteristic shell, found in the Fanning and 
Heid Gap Limestones of the Burdekin Formation 
(Middle Devonian). 

Carbopermian Cephalopods. — 

The Carbopermian rocks of New South Wales have 
yielded Orthoceras striatum, Cameroceras, Nautilus 
and Agathiceras micromphalum (Fig. J05F). In 
Queensland the Gympie Formation contains Ortho- 
ceras, Gyroceras, Nautilus, Agathiceras micrompha- 
lum and A. planorbiforme. In Western Australia 
the Kimberley rocks contain Orthoceras, Glyphio- 
ceras sphaericum and Agathiceras micromphalum; 
whilst the largest known Australian goniatite, Gastrio- 
ceras jacksoni (Fig. 105 E) is found in the Irwin 
Eiver District. Actinoceras hardmani is an interest- 



ing fossil from the Carbopermian of Lennard River r 
N.W. Australia. In Tasmania the genera Orthoceras 
and Goniatites have been recorded from beds of simi- 
lar age. 
Triassic Cephalopods. — 

For Triassic cephalopoda we look to New Zealand, 
where, in the Mount Potts Spiriferina Beds of the 
Kaihiku Series a species of Orthoceras has been re- 
corded. The Wairoa Series next in succession con- 
tains Orthoceras and an Ammonite. 
Jurassic Cephalopods. — 

The Jurassic of Western Australia yields a rich 
cephalopod fauna, from which may be selected as 


A — Perisphinctes championensis, Crick. Jurassic. West Australia 

B— Nautilus hendersoni, Eth. fil. Iy. Cretaceous. Queensland 

C — Haploceras daintreei, Kth. sp. I,. Cretaceous. Queensland 

D— Crioceras australe, Moore. L. Cretaceous. Queensland 

E — Aturia australis, McCoy. Cainozoic. Victoria 

F— Spirulirostra curta, Tate. Cainozoic (Janjukian). Victoria 


typical examples the Nautilus, N. perornatus and the 
following Ammonites : Dorsetensia clarkei; Nor- 
manites australis; and Perisphinctes championensis 
(Fig. 106 A). These all occur in the Greenough 
River District, and at several other Jurassic localities 
in Western Australia. 

The Jurassic system of New Zealand (Putataka 
Series) contains Ammonites aucklandicus and Belem- 
nites aucklandicus, both from the upper marine hori- 
zon of that series. 

Upper Jurassic Ammonites belonging to the genera 
Macrocephalites (M. cf. calloviensis) and Erymno- 
ceras (E. cf. coronation) have been recorded from 
Lower Cretaceous Cephalopods. — 

Remains of Cephalopoda are fairly abundant in the 
Lower Cretaceous of Australasia. From amongst 
them may be selected the following — Nautilus hender- 
soni (Fig. 106 B) (Q.) ; Haploceras daintreei (Fig. 
106 C)) (Q. and N.S.W.) ; Desmoceras flindersi (Q. 
and N.S.W.) ; Schloenbachia inflatus (Q.) ; Scaphites 
eruciformis (N.Terr.) ; Ancyloceras flindersi (Q. and 
N.S.W.); Crioceras australe (Fig. 106 D) (Q. and 
S.A.) ; Belemites australis (Q.) ; B. oxys (Q., N.S.W., 
and S.A.) ; B. sellheimi (Q. and S.A.) • B. diptycha, 
^canhami, Tate, (Q., N.S.W., and S.A.) ; and B. 
eremos (Centr. S.A.)- ». 

Upper Cretaceous Cephalopods. — 

In the Upper Cretaceous (Desert Sandstone) of 
Queensland there occurs a Belemnite somewhat re- 
sembling Belemnites diptycha, but with a very pointed 


Cretaceous Cephalopods, New Zealand. — 

In New Zealand the Amuri System (Cretaceous) 
contains fossils which have been referred to the genera 
Ammonites, B acuities, Hamites, Ancyloceras and 
Belemnties, but probably these determinations require 
some further revision. A species of Belemnite has 
also been noted from probable Cretaceous beds in 

The Cainozoic System in Victoria contains a true 
Nautilus, N. geelongensis; and Aturia australis (Fig. 
106 E), a nautiloid shell having zig-zag suture lines 
and septal necks enclosing the siphuncle. A. austra- 
lis is also found in the Oamaru Series of New Zea- 
land; in Victoria it has an extensive vertical range, 
from Balcombian to Kalimnan (Oligocene to Lower 
Pliocene). Species of Nautilus are also found in the 
Janjukian of the Murray River Cliffs; where, in some 
cases the shell has been infilled with clear gypsum or 
selenite, through which can be seen the tubular siph- 
uncle in its original position. Spirulirostra curta 
(Fig. 106 F) is an interesting cuttle-bone of rare 
occurrence. The genus is represented by two other 
species only, occurring in the Miocene of Italy and 
Germany. In Victoria it is occasionally found in the 
Janjukian marly limestone at Bird Rock near Tor- 



Ambonychia macroptera, Tate. Cambrian: S. Australia. 
(?) Modiolopsis knowsleyensis, Chapm. L. Ordovician: Vic- 


Orthonota australis, Chapm. Silurian ( Melbournian ) : Vic- 

Grammy sia cuneiformis, Eth. fil. Silurian (Melbournian) : 

Leptodomus maccoyianus, Chapm. Silurian (Melbournian) : 

Edmondia perobliqua, Chapm. Silurian (Melbournian): Vic- 

Cardiola cornucopiae, Goldfuss sp. Silurian (Melbournian) : 

Panenka gippslandica, McCoy sp. Silurian (Tanjilian) : Vic- 

Ctenodonta portlocki, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Nuculites maccoyianus, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Nucula melbournensis, Chapm. Silurian (Melb.) : Victoria. 

Palaeoneilo victoriae, Chapm. Silurian (Melb.) : Victoria. 

Pterinea lineata, Goldfuss. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Lunulicardium antistriatum, Chapm. Silurian (Tanj.) : Vic- 

Gonocardium costatum, Cressw. sp. Silurian: Victoria. 

Conocardium davidis, Dun. Silurian: New South Wales. 

Actinopteria boydi, Conrad sp. Silurian (Yer. ) : Victoria. 

Aviculopecten spryi, Chapm. Silurian (Melb.) : Victoria. 

Modiolopsis complanata, Sowerby sp. Silurian (Melb.) : Vic- 

Goniophora australis, Chapm. Silurian (Yer.) : Victoria. 

Gypricardinia conteocta, Barrande. Silurian (Yer.) : Victoria. 

Paracyclas siluricus, Chapm. Silurian (Melb.) : Victoria. 

Actinopteria australis, Dun. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Lyriopecten gracilis, Dun. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Leptodesma inflatum, Dun. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Stutchburia farleyensis, Eth. fil. Carbopermian : New South 

Edmondia nobilissima, de Koninck. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales. 

Deltopecten limaeformis, Morris sp. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales, Queensland and Tasmania. 

Aviculopecten squamuliferus, Morris sp. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales and Tasmania. 

Aviculopecten tenuicollis, Dana sp. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales and W. Australia. 

Ghaenomya etheridgei, de Koninck sp. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales and Queensland. 

Maeonia elongata, Dana. Carbopermian: New South Wales. 

Pachydomus globosus, J. de C. Sow. sp. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland. 

Eurydesma cordatum, Morris. Carbopermian: New South 
Wales and Queensland. 


Unio dunstani, Eth. fil. Trias: New South Wales. 

Unionella carnei, Eth. fil. Trias: New South Wales. 

Corbicula burrumensis, Eth. fil. Trias: Queensland. 

Daonella lommeli, Wissm. sp. Trias: New Zealand.. 

Mytilus problematicus, Zittel. Trias: New Zealand. 

Monotis salinaria, Zittel. Trias: New Zealand. 

Cucullaea semistriata, Moore. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Trigonia moorei, Lycett. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Ctenostreon pectiniforme, Schlotheim sp. Jurassic: W. Aus- 

Astarte cliftoni, Moore. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Unio dacombei, McCoy. Jurassic: Victoria. 

Unio eyrensis, Tate. Jurassic: S. Australia. 

Nucula truncata, Moore. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland 
and S. Australia. 

Maccoyella reflecta, Moore sp. L. Cretaceous: New South 
Wales, Queensland (also U. Cretaceous), and S. Australia. 

Maccoyella barkleyi, Moore sp. L. Cretaceous: New South 
Wales, Queensland and S. Australia. 

Fissilunula clarkei, Moore sp. L. Cretaceous: New South 
Wales, Queensland, and S. Australia; also Up. Cret. in 
Queensland and South Australia. 

Inoceramus carsoni, McCoy. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland. 

Trigonia cinctuta, Eth. fil. Lower Cretaceous: S. Australia. 

Mytilus rugocostatus, Moore. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland 
and S. Australia. 

Cyrenopsis opallites, Eth. fil. Upper Cretaceous: New South 

Conchothyra parasitica, Hutton. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Dimya dissimilis, Tate. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : Victoria and 
South Australia. 

Spondylus pseudoradula, McCoy. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : 
Victoria and South Australia. 

Pecten polymorphoides, Zittel. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : Vic- 
toria and South Australia; also New Zealand. 

Cucullaea corioensis, McCoy. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : Vic- 
toria and South Australia. 

Leda vagans, Tate. Cainozoic (Balc.-Aal. ) : Victoria and 
South Australia. 

Corbula ephamilla, Tate. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : Victoria 
and South Australia. 

Modiola praerupta, Pritchard. Cainozoic (Bale.) : Victoria. 

Pecten praecursor, Chapm. Cainozoic ( Janjukian) : Victoria. 

Modiola pueblensis, Pritchard. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Vic- 

Limopsis insolita, Sow. sp. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Victoria 
and S. Australia. Also Oamaru Ser., N.Z.). 

Cardita tasmanica, Tate. Cainozoic (Janj.) : Tasmania. 


Lucinu planatella, Tate. Cainozoic (Janj.) : Victoria and Tas- 

Peeten novae-guineae, T. Woods. Cainozoic ( ?Lower Pliocene). 
Yule Island, Papua. 

Ostrea manubriata, Tate. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Gtycimeris halli, Pritch. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Limopsis beaumariensis, Chapm. Cainozoic (Kalimnan and 
Werrikooian) : Victoria. 

Trigonia hoivitti, McCoy. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Mereirix paucirugata, Tate sp. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Venus (Chione) subroborata, Tate, sp. Cainozoic (Kal.) : 
Victoria and South Australia. 


Dental him tenuissimum, de Koninck. Mid. Devonian: New 

South Wales. 

Dental him huttoni, Bather. Jurassic: New Zealand. 

Dentalium loollumbillensis, Eth. fil. L. Cretaceous: Queens- 

Dentalhim mantelli, Zittel. Cainozoic: Victoria, S. Austra- 
lia and New Zealand. 


{Jhelodes calceoloides, Eth. fil. Silurian: New South Wales. 
Ischnochiton granulosus, Ashby and Torr sp. Cainozoic 

(Bale.) : Victoria. 
Lorica duniana, Hull. Cainozoic ( Janjukian) : Tasmania. 
Crypt o place pritchardi, Hall. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 


Ophileta subangulata, Tate. Cambrian: S. Australia. 
Platyeeras etheridgei, Tate. Cambrian: S. Australia. 
Salterella planoconvexa, Tate. Cambrian: S. Australia. 
J3 alter ella- hardmani, Foord. Cambrian: W. Australia. 
Hyolithes communis, Billings. Cambrian: S. Australia. 
Scenella tenuistriata, Chapm. Cambrian (Upper) : Victoria. 
Ophileta gilesi, Tate. Ordovician: S. Australia. 
Raphistoma broioni, Tate. Ordovician: S. Australia. 
Hyolithes leptus, Chapm. Lower Ordovician: Victoria. 
Helicoioma johnstoni, Eth. fil. Ordovician: Tasmania. 
Coleolus (?) aciculum, J. Hall. Silurian (Melb.) : Victoria. 
Hyolithes spryi, Chapm. Silurian (Melb.) : Victoria. 
Conularia ornatissima, Chapm. Silurian (Melb.) : Victoria. 
Phanerotrcma australis, Eth. fil. Silurian (Yer. ) : Victoria. 
Gyrodoma etheridgei, Cressw. sp. Silurian (Yer.) : Victoria. 
Trematonotus pritchardi, Cressw. Silurian (Yer.) : Victoria. 
Bellerophon cresswelli, Eth. fil. sp. Silurian (Yer.) Victoria. 


Euomphalus northi, Eth. fil. sp. Silurian (Yer.) : Victoria. 

Cyclonema australis, Eth. fil. Silurian (Yer.) : Victoria. 

Trochonema montgomerii, Eth. fil. sp. Silurian: Tasmania. 

Bellerophon jukesii, de Koninck. Silurian: New South Wales. 

Conularia sowerbii, Def ranee. Silurian: Victoria and New 
South Wales. 

Euomphalus culleni, Dun. Devonian: New South Wales. 

Gosseletina australis, Eth. fil. Carboniferous: New South 

Yvania konincki, Eth. fil. Carboniferous: New South Wales; 
and Carbopermian : Queensland. 

Bellerophon costatus, Sow. Carbopermian: W. Australia. 

Mourlonia humilis, de Koninck. Carbopermian: West Aus- 
tralia and New South Wales. 

Pleurotomaria (Ptychomphalina) morrisiana, McCoy. Car- 
bopermian: New South Wales. 

Keeneia platyschismoides, Eth. fil. Carbopermian (Lower 
Marine) : New South Wales. 

Platyschisma oculum, Sow. sp. Carbopermian: New South 
Wales and Queensland. 

Macrocheilus filosus, Sow. Carbopermian: New South Wales. 

Locconema babbindonensis, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales. 

Conularia tenuistriata, McCoy. Carbopermian: New South 
Wales and Queensland. 

Conularia tasmanica. . Carbopermian : Tasmania. 

Murchisonia carinata, Etheridge. Carbopermian: Queensland. 

Pleurotomaria greenoughiensis, Eth. fil. Jurassic: W. Aus- 

Turbo australis, Moore. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Rissoina australis, Moore. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Cinulia hochstetteri, Moore. Cretaceous: Queensland and S. 

Natica omatissima, Moore. Cretaceous: S. Australia. 

Pseudamaura variabilis, Moore sp. Cretaceous: New Soutk 
Wales, Queensland and S. Australia. 

Anchura wilkinsoni, Eth. fil. Cretaceous: Queensland and S. 

Rostellaria ivaiparensis, Hector. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Niso psila, T. Woods. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : Victoria and 
S. Australia. 

Crepidula unguiformis, Lam. Cainozoic (Bale. -Recent) : Vic- 
toria and Tasmania. 

Natica hamiltonensis, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale. -Recent) : Vic- 
toria and South Australia. 

Turritella murrayana, Tate. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : Vic- 
toria, S. Australia and Tasmania. 

Cerithium apheles, T. Woods. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : Victoria. 


Volutilithes antiscalaris, McCoy sp. Cainozoic ( Balc.-Werri- 
kooian) : Victoria. 

Aricilla pseudaustralis, Tate sp. Cainozoic (Balc.-Kal.) : 
Victoria, S. Australia and Tasmania. 

Cypraea ampullacea, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) : Victoria. 

Murex didyma, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) : Victoria. 

Eburnopsis anlacoessa, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) : Victoria. 

Cancellaria calvalata, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) : Victoria. 

Vaginella elig mo stoma, Tate. Cainozoic (Bale.) : Victoria. 

Eutrochus fontinalis, Pritchard. Cainozoic (Jan Juki an) : Vic- 

Turbo atkinsoni, Pritchard. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Tas- 
mania and Victoria. 

Seala lampra, Tate sp. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : S. Australia. 

Natica gibbosa, Hutton. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Victoria. 
Also Oamaru and Wanganui Series: New Zealand. 

Morio loilsoni, Tate. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Victoria. 

Voluta heptagonalis, Tate. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : S. Aus- 

Volutilithes anticingulat-us, McCoy sp. Cainozoic (Janjuk- 
ian) : Victoria and Tasmania. Also Papua. 

Bathytoma paracantha, T. Woods sp. Cainozoic (Janj.) : 
Victoria and Tasmania. Also Papua. 

Dolium costatum, Deshayes. Cainozoic. (? Lower Piocene) : 
Yule Island, Papua. 

Bankivia howitti, Pritch. Cainozoic (Kal. ) : Victoria. 

Eglisia triplicata, Tate sp. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Voluta masoni, Tate. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Ancilla papillata, Tate sp. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Drillia wanganuiensis, Hutton. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria 
Also Petane Series: New Zealand. 

Terebra geniculata, Tate. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Pleurotomaria tertiaria, McCoy. Cainozoic (Kal.): Victoria 
Also Oamaru Series: New Zealand. 

Scala lyrata, Zittel sp. Cainozoic (Oamaru) : New Zealand. 

Natica darwinii, Hutton. Cainozoic (Oamaru) : New Zealand. 

Turritella caver sham ensis, Harris. Cainozoic (Oamaru) : New 

Ancilla hebera, Hutton sp. Cainozoic (Oamaru) : New Zealand. 
Also (Bale, and Janj.) : Victoria, South Australia and 

Pleurotoma hamiltoni, Hutton. Cainozoic (Oamaru) : New 

Natica ovata, Hutton. Cainozoic (Awatere Series) : New 

Struthiolaria sulcata, Hutton. Cainozoic (Awatere Series) : 
New Zealand. 


Trophon eocpansus, Hutton. Cainozoic (Petane Series) : New 

Pisania drewi, Hutton. Cainozoic (Petane Series) : New 

Bankivia fasciata, Menke. Cainozoic (Werrikooian-Recent) : 

Astralium aureum, Jonas sp. Cainozoic (Werrikooian- 
Recent) : Victoria. 

Natica subinfundibulum, Tate. Cainozoic (Balc.-Werr. ) : 
Victoria and S. Australia. 

Nassa pauperata, Lam. Cainozoic (Werr.-Rec. ) : Victoria. 

Helix tasmaniensis, Sow. Cainozoic (Pleistocene) : Tasmania. 

Helix geilstonensis, Johnston. Cainozoic (Pleistocene) : Tas- 

Panda atomata, Gray sp. Cainozoic (Pleist.-Rec.) : Victoria 
and New South Wales. 


Endoceras ivarburtoni, Eth. fil. Ordovician: S. Australia. 

Orthoceras gossei, Eth. fil. Ordovician: S. Australia. 

Orthoceras ibiciforme, Tate. Ordovician: S. Australia. 

Trochoceras reticostatum, Tate. Ordovician: S. Australia. 

Actinoceras tatei, Eth. fil. sp. Ordovician: S. Australia. 

Orthoceras capillosum, Barrande. Silurian: Victoria. 

Orthoceras linear e, Minister sp. Silurian (Yer. ) : Victoria. 

Cycloceras bullatum, Sow. sp. Silurian (Melbournian) : Vic- 

Cycloceras ibex, Sow. sp. Silurian (Melbournian): Victoria. 

Kionoceras striatopunctatum , Minister sp. Silurian (Tan- 
jilian) : Victoria. 

Phragmoceras subtrigonum, McCoy. Mid. Devonian: Victoria. 

Gyroceras philpi, Eth. fil. Mid. Devonian: Queensland. 

Orthoceras striatum, Sow. Carbopermian : New South Wales. 

Agathiceras micromphalum , Morris sp. Carbopermian: New 
South Wales and W T . Australia. 

Gastrioceras jacksoni, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: W. Australia. 

Actinoceras hardmani, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: N.W. Aus- 

Nautilus perornatus, Crick. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Dorsetensia clarkei, Crick. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Normanites australis, Crick sp. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Perisphinctes championensis, Crick. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Ammonites aucklandicus, Hector. Jurassic: New Zealand. 

Belemnites aucklandicus, Hector. Jurassic: New Zealand. 

Nautilus hendersoni, Eth. fil. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland. 

Haploceras daintreei, Etheridge sp. Lower Cretaceous: 
Queensland and New South Wales. 


Ancyloccras fiindersi, McCoy. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 
land and New South Wales. 

Crioceras australe, Moore. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland 
and S. Australia. 

Scaphites eruciformis, Eth. fil. Lower Cretaceous: Northern 

Belemnites diptycha, McCoy. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland, 
New South Wales, and S. Australia. 

Belemnites erernos, Tate. Lower Cretaceous: S. Australia. 

Nautilus geelongensis, Foord. Cainozoic ( Janjukian) : Vic- 

Aturia australis, McCoy. Cainozoic (Bal.-Kal.): Victoria. 
Oamaru Series: New Zealand. 

Spirulirostra curia, Tate. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Victoria. 


Cambrian.— Foord, A. H. Geol. Mag.. Dec. III. vol. VII. 
1800, pp. 98, 99 (Pteropoda). Tate, R. Trans. R. Soc. 
S. Austr., vol. XV. 1892, pp. 183-185 (Pelec. and Gastr.), 
pp. 186, 187 (Pteropoda). Etheridge, R. jnr. Trans. 
R. Soc. S. Austr., vol. XXIX. 1905, p. 251 (Pteropoda). 
Chapman. F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XXIII. pt. II. 
1910, pp. 313, 314 (Gastr.). 

Ordovician. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Pari. Papers, Leg. Assemb., 
S. Austr., No. 158, 1891, pp. 9, 10 (Gastr. and Ceph.). 
Tate, R. Rep. Horn. Sci. Exped., pt. 3, 1896, pp. 98-110. 
Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vic, vol. XV. pt. II. 1903, 
pp. 119, 120 (Hyolithes). 

Silurian.— McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vic, Dec. VI. 1879, pp. 
23-29. Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec Austr. Mus., vol. I. 
No. 3, 1890, pp. 62-67 (Gastr.). Idem, ibid., vol. I. 
No. 7, 1891, pp. 126-130 (Pelec and Gastr.). Cresswell, 
A. W. Proc R. Soc Vict., vol. V. 1893, pp. 41-44. 
Etheridge, R. jun. Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. III. No. 4, 1898, 
pp. 71-77 ( Gastr.). Idem, Rec. Geol. Surv. New South 
Wales, vol. V. pt. 2, 1898, pp. 67-70 (Chelodes). De 
Koninck, L. G. Mem. Geo. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. 
No. 6, 1898, pp. 29-35. Etheridge, R. jnr. Prog. Rep. 
Geol. Surv. Vict., No. XL 1899, pp. 34, 35 (Pelec). Idem, 
Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. V. No. 2, 1904, pp. 75-77 (Ceph.). 
Chapman, F. Proc R. Soc, Vict., vol. XVI. pt. 11. 1904, 
pp. 336-341 (Pteropoda). Idem, Mem. Nat. Mus. Mel- 
bourne, No. 2, 1908 ( Pelecypoda ) . 


Devonian.— McCoy, F. Trod. Pal., Vict., Dec. IV. 1876, pp. 

18, 19 (Ceph.). Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. and Pal. 

Queensland, 1892, p 69 (Gyroceras) . De Koninck, L. G. 

Mem. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 6, 1898, 

pp. 85-105. 
Carboniferous. — Etlieridge, 11. jnr. Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. III. 

No. 1, 1897, pp. 7-9 {Actinoceras) . Idem, Geol. Surv. 

W.A., Bull. No. 27, 1907, pp. 32-37. 
Carbopermian. — Morris, J., in Strzelecki's Phys. Descr. of New 

South Wales, etc., 1845, pp. 270-278 and 285-291. Foord, 

A. H. Geol. Mag., Dec. III. vol. VII. 1890, pp. 103, 104. 

Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 1892, pp. 

264-296. Idem., Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. 

IX. 1895, pp. 530-537 (Pelec. and Gastr.). De Koninck, 

L. G. Mem. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 6, 

1898, pp. 203-274. Etheridge, R. jnr. and Dun, W. S. 

Mem. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 5, vol. II. 

pt. I. 1906 (Palaeopecten) . Idem, ibid., vol. II., pt. 2, 

1910 ( Eurydesma ) . 
Trias. — Zittel, K. Novaia Exped., vol. I. Abth. II. Geol. 

Theil., 1864, pp. 26-29. Etheridge, R. jnr. Mem. Geol. 

Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 1, 1888, pp. 8-14. 

Jurassic. — Zittel, K. Novara Exped., vol. I., Abth. II. Geol. 
Theil., 1864, pp. 20-34. Moore, C. Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, vol. XXVI. pp. 245-260 (Jurassic and Cretaceous 
Moll.). Etheridge, R. jnr. ibid., vol. XXVIII. 1872, 
pp. 317-359 (Palaeozoic, Jur. and Cret. Moll.). Crick, 
G. C. Geol. Mag., Dec. IV. vol. I. 1894, pp. 385 393 and 
433-441 (Ceph.). Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. 
XVI. pt. II. 1904, pp. 327-332. Marshall, P. Trans. 
New Zealand Inst,, vol. XLI. 1909, pp. 143-145 (New 
Zealand Ceph.). Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. Surv. W.A. 
Bull. No. 36, 1910, pp. 30-40. 

Cretaceous. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. and Pal. Queensland^ 
1892, pp. 445-503 and 561-574. Idem, Geol. Surv. 
Queensland, Bull. No. 13, 1901, pp. 13-35. Idem, Mem. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. II. pt. 1, 1902 (S.A. Moll.). 
Idem, Mem. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 11, 
1902, pp. 16-49 (New South Wales Moll.). 

Cainozoic. — Zittel, K. Novara Exped. Geol. Theil., vol. I. 
Abth. II. 1864, pp. 34-55 (Pelec. and Gastr. New Zea- 
land). McCoy, F. Prod., Pal. Vict., Dec. T. 1874; 
Dec. II. 1875; Dec. III. 1876; Dec. V. 1877; Dec. VI. 
1879. Woods, J. E. T. Proc. R. Soc. Tas. (1875), 1876, 
pp. 13-26 (Table Cape Moll.). Idem, Proc. Linn. Soc. 
New South Wales, vol. III. 1879, pp. 222-240 {Muddy 
Creek Moll.). Idem, ibid., vol. IV. 1880, pp. 1-24. 


Hutton, F. \V. Trans. New Zealand Inst. vol. IX. 1877. 
pp. 593-598. Ibid., vol. XVII. 1885, pp. 313-332 (New 
Zealand Pelec. and Gastr. ) . Idem, Proc. Linn. Soc. New 
South Wales, vol. F. 2nd ser. (1886), 1887, pp. 205-237 
(distr. lists, Pareora and Oamaru). Idem, Macleay, Mem, 
Vol. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 1893, pp. 35-92 (Plio- 
cene Moll. New Zealand). Tate, R. Trans. R. Soc. S. 
Austr., vol. VII. 1S86, pp. 96-158. and vol. IX., 1887, 
pp. 142-189 (Pelec); ibid., pp. 190-194 ( Scaphopoda ) : 
ibid., 194-196 (Pteropoda). Idem, ibid., vol. X. 1888, 
pp. 91-176; vol. XI. 1889, pp. 116-174; vol. XIII. 1890. 
pp. 185-235; and vol. XVII. 1893, pp. 316-345 (Gastr.). 
Idem, Journ. R. Soc, New South Wales, vol. XXVII. 
1893, pp. 169-191. Idem, ibid., vol. XXXI. i897, pp. 
392-410 (Gastr. and Pelec). Idem, Trans. Roy. Soc 
S. Austr., vol. XXIII. 1899, pp. 260-277 (Revision of 
Moll.). Pritchard, G. B. Proc. Rov. Soc. Vic, vol. VII. 
1895, pp. ^25-231 (Pelec). Idem, 'ibid., vol. VIII 1896, 
pp. 79-141 (Moll, of T. Cape). Idem, ibid., vol. XL pt. 
I. 1898, pp. 96-111 (Gastr.). Idem, ibid., vol. XIV. 
pt. I. 1901, pp. 22-31 (Pelec). Idem, ibid., vol. XVI. 
pt. II. 1903, pp. 87-103 (Pelec). Idem, ibid., vox. XVI. 
pt. I. 1903, pp. 83-91 {Pleurotomaria) . Idem, ibid., vol. 
XVII. pt. I. 1904, pp. 320-337 (Gastr.) Idem, ibid.. 
vol. XXVI. (N.S.) pt. I. 1913, pp. 192-201 (Volutes). 
Hall, T. S. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XVII. pt. II. 1905, pp. 
391-393 (Chitons). Ashby. E. and Torr. W. G. Trans. R. 
Soc S. Austr., vol. XXV. 1901, pp. 136-144 (Chitons). 
Thomson, J. A. Trans. New Zealand Inst., Vol. XL. 1908, 
pp. 102, 103 (N.Z. Moll.). Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. 
Vict. vol. XX. pt. II 1908, pp. 218-220 (Chiton). Idem, 
ibid., vol. XXV. pt. I. 1912, pp. 186-192 (Gastr.). 



Arthropods and their Structure. — 

The above-named fossil groups are included by zoo- 
logists in the subkingdom Arthropoda ("joint-footed 
animals"). The Arthropods possess a body and 
limbs composed of a number of jointed segments 
covered externally with a hard, shelly material and 
separated by a softer, flexible skin. They have no 
internal skeleton, and therefore the only portion which 
can be preserved in the fossil state is the harder part 
of the outer covering. Under exceptional conditions 
of fossilisation, however, even frail insects such as 
ants, wasps and dragon-flies are sometimes found more 
or less wholly preserved and showing their original 
minute structure. 
Subdivisions of Arthropoda. — 

The principal representatives of the group of the 
Arthropods which are found as fossils include the 
Trilobites ; various Crustacea proper, as Crabs, 
Lobsters, Shrimps, Pod-shrimps and Water-fleas; the 
Insects; and occasionally Spiders and Scorpions 
(Arachnida). The King-crabs and Eurypterids (as 



the extinct Pterygotus) form a separate sub-class, the 
Merostomata, which are placed by some authors in 
the group of Spiders and Scorpions: their remains 
date back to the time when the older Palaeozoic strata 
were deposited. 

Crustacea, an Archaic Group. — 

A typical division of the Arthropod group, and one 
which was well represented from the earliest period 
up to the present day, is the CRUSTACEA. As the 
name denotes, these animals are generally invested 
with a strong shelly covering or " crust," usually of 
horny or chitinous material, which in some forms is 
strengthened by deposits of phosphate of lime. Of 
the horny condition of the shell the groups of the 
bivalved Crustacea (Ostracoda) and the "water- 
fleas" (Bntomostraca) supply notable instances; 
whilst the limy-structured shell is seen in the common 
crab. Some authorities separate the great extinct 
group of the Trilobites from the rest of the Crustacea ; 
but it will here be convenient, in a preliminary study, 
to consider them together. 

Development of Crustacea. — 

The development of the lower forms of the Crustacea 
is interesting, from the fact that the young usually 
escapes from the egg in a larval state known as a 
"nauplius. " In this stage there are no segments 
to the body, and but a solitary median eye, such as 
may be seen in the common water-flea known to micro- 
scopists as Cyclops. The three pairs of appendages 
seen in this larval crustacean represent the two pairs 
of antennae and the jaws or mandibles of the full- 
grown form. 


Among the higher Crustacea, however, there is no 
larval form; the young escaping from the egg in a 
more or less highly developed condition resembling 
the adult. The group of the Crabs, Lobsters and 
Shrimps (or Decapoda, i.e., having ten ambulatory 
feet) exhibit a larval stage in which the young form 
i/'zoea") has a segmented abdomen and seven pairs 
of appendages. 

Trilobites. — 

The first group of arthropods here described is that 
of the TRILOBITES. These were so named on 
account of the three-lobed form of the body. This 
particular feature distinguishes them from the 
Crustacea proper; which includes the Phyllopods 
(with leaf -like limbs), as the freshwater Estheria, 
the Ostracoda or Bivalved Water-fleas, the Barnacles 
or Cirripedia and the Higher Crustacea (Mala- 
costraca), including Shrimps, Crabs, and Lobsters, of 
which the oldest representatives are the Pod-shrimps 

Habits of Trilobites. — 

The remains of these primitive but often strikingly 
ornamented crustacean-like animals, the trilobites, 
are found in comparative abundance in the lime- 
stones, mudstones, and even the sandstones of the 
older sedimentary rocks of Australasia. They were 
amongst the most prolific types of animal life exist- 
ing in the seas of Palaeozoic times, and are especially 
characteristic of Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian 
rocks. Trilobites, as a group, seem to have adapted 
themselves to almost all conditions of marine life: 


some are found in the hardened black mud of shal- 
low waters, whilst others are to be looked for in 
the limestones and excessively fine sediments of 
deeper waters. In all probability certain of these 
forms crawled over the soft, oozy sea-bed in order 
to obtain their food, and consequently their remains 
in the stratified rocks would be restricted to the fine 
black shales ; whilst the freely swimming forms could 
change their habitat at will, and would be found 
alike in sandy or clayey deposits. As some indication 
of their varied habits, the eyes of trilobites differ 
greatly in size. They are always compound 
like the eye of the house-fly, though of a semi- 
lunar shape. In some forms the eyes are very 
small or even absent, whilst in others they are ex- 
ceedingly large and prominent. This latter feature 
probably indicates their frequenting moderately deep 

Structure of Trilobites. — 

The complete structure and zoological relationship 
of the trilobites has always been open to some doubt. 
As regards the former, within recent years excep- 
tionally well-preserved specimens from the Utica 
Slates and the Cincinnati Limestone of Ohio, rocks 
of Ordovician age, have been discovered and dis- 
sected, whereby our knowledge of the organisation of 
this group is greatly advanced. These remark- 
able fossil remains show that the Trilobites 
I)ore on their under surface a number of 
appendages, one pair to each segment, except 
that of the anal. The front pair is whip- 
like and served as antennae ; the others are 



Frontal lobe 

Head-shield < 


Pygidium < 

glabella divided into seg- 
ments by lateral furrows 
y eye lobe 

„ free cheek 

-axal furrow 

—•facial suture 

fixed cheek 

neck furrow 

genal spine 

^..pleural groove 

- axis 

axal furrow 

Tig. 107 — Diagram-restoration of an Australian Trilobite. 

(Dalmanites meridian us, Eth. fil. and Mitch, sp.) 

To show the sutures or joints, and the structure of the back of the 

carapace. About % natural size. 


branched, the forward portion being a crawling limb, 
and the hinder, which was fringed with bristles or 
thin plates, may have served either for swimming or 
breathing. At the base of the four pairs of appen- 
dages attached to the head there was an arrangement 
for biting the food, from whence it was passed to 
the mouth. Taking one of the commonest Australa- 
sian trilobites, Dalmanites meridianus, for an ex- 
ample of general structure, and looking at the back 
of the shell or upper surface, we see the trilobate 
(three-lobed) form well defined (Fig. 107). The 
central ridge is termed the axis, and on either side 
of this are arranged the pleural lobes, each well 
marked transverse division of which, in the central 
or thoracic region, being a pleuron or rib. The whole 
body is divided into three more or less distinct por- 
tions, — the head-shield or cephalon, the thorax, and 
the tail-shield or pygidium. The central area of the 
head-shield is called the glabella or cranidium^ 
against which, on either side, are placed the free 
cheeks carrying the compound sessile eyes when pre- 
sent. The appendages of the head are pediform or 
leglike, arranged in five pairs, and biramous or 
forked, excepting the antennae, which are simple and 
used as sensory organs. In front of the mouth is 
the hypostoma or forelip, and behind it is the metas- 
toma or hind-lip. The segments of the head- shield 
are most closely united, and in all the trilobites are 
of the same number. Those of the thorax have flex- 
ible joints and are variable in number. The seg- 
ments of the abdomen are fused together and form 
a caudal shield or pygidium. 



The larval stage of the trilobite was a proto- 
nauplian form (that is more primitive than the nau- 
plius), the protoaspis; the adult stage, being attained 
by the addition of segments at the successive moults. 

The earliest known trilobites in Australia are some 
Cambrian species from South Australia, Western 
Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. 

Lower Cambrian Trilobites. — 

In the Lower Cambrian Limestone of Yorke Penin- 
sula, South Australia, the following trilobites occur: 
— a species doubtfully referred to Olenellus ( ? 0. 
pritchardi); Ptychoparia howchini (Fig. 108 A) ; P. 
australis; Dolichometopus tatei (Fig. 108 B); and 


A — Ptychoparia howchini, Kth. fil. L,. Cambrian. South Australia 

B — Dolichometopus tatei, H. Woodw. I,. Cambrian. South Australia 

C — Agnostus australiensis, Chapm. Up. Cambrian. Victoria 

D — Ptychoparia thielei, Chapm. Up. Cambrian. Victoria 

E— Dikellocephalus florentinensis, Eth. fil. 1^. Cambrian. Tasmania 


Microdiscas subsagittatus. The Cambrian of the 
Northern Territory contains Olenellns brownii. In 
Western Australia Olenellus forresti is found in simi- 
lar beds. 

Upper Cambrian Trilobites. — 

The Dolodrook Limestone (Upper Cambrian) of 
Gippsland, Victoria, contains the remains of the 
primitive little trilobite Agnostus (A. australiensis, 
Fig. 108 C) ; Crepicephalus (C. etheridgei) ; and 
Ptychoparia (P. thielei (Fig. 108 D) and P. minima). 
The Upper Cambrian sandstones of Caroline Creek, 
Tasmania, contain Dikellocephalus (D. tasmanicus) ; 
a species of Asaphas and Ptychoparia (P. stephensi). 
Beds of the same age in the Florentine Valley, Tas- 
mania, have yielded Dikellocephalus (D. florentinen- 
sis, Fig. 108 E). 

Ordovician Trilobites. — 

Trilobites of Lower Ordovician age or even older, 
are found in the Knowsley beds near Heathcote in 
Victoria. They are referred to two genera. Dinesus 
and Notasaphus. Both forms belong to the ancient 
family of the Asaphidae. Associated with these tri- 
lobites are some doubtful species of seaweed, spic- 
ules of siliceous sponges, traces of threadlike hydro- 
zoa, some fragments of graptolites allied to Bryo- 
graptus, and several brachiopods. At the Lyndhurst 
Goldfields, near Mandurama, New South Wales, trilo- 
bites related to the genus Shumardia have been found 
associated with brachiopods (lamp-shells), pteropods 
(sea-butterflies), and graptolites (hydrozoa) of an 
Upper Ordovician facies. 



The limestone beds at Laurie 's Creek and other 
localities in Central Australia contain remains of 
Asaphus illarensis, A. hoivchini and A. lissopelta; 
whilst in the limestone and quartzite of Middle Val- 
ley, Tempe Downs, A. thorntoni also occurs. 

Silurian Trilobites. — 

Trilobites are w T ell-known fossils in the Australa- 
sion Silurian strata. As they occur rather abun- 
dantly along with other fossils in rocks of this age 
they are extremely useful aids in separating the sys- 
tem into the different beds or zones. In Victoria the 
Silurian is divisible into two sets of beds: an older, 
or Melbournian stage (the bed-rock of Melbourne) 


A-Ampyx parvulus, Forbes, var. jikaensis, Chapm. Silurian 

(Melb.) Victoria 
B— Cypaspis spryi, Gregory. Silurian (Melb.) Victoria 
C — Homalonotus harrisoni, McCoy. Silurian (Melb.) Victoria 
D — Phacops latigenalis, Eth. fil. and Mitch. Silurian. N.S. Wales 


and a younger, Yeringian (Lily dale series). Trilobites 
of Melbournian age are found to belong to the genera 
Ampyx, Illaenus, Proetus, Cyphaspis, Encrinurus 
(Cromus) and Homalonotus* The commonest species 
are Cyphaspis spryi (Fig. 109 B), and Encrinurus 
(Cromus) spryi from the South Yarra mudstones; 
and Ampyx parvulus, var. jikaensis (Fig. 109 A), and 
Homalonotus harrisoni (Fig. 109 C), from the sand- 
stone of Moonee Ponds Creek. 

The handsome Dalmanites meridianus and Homa- 
lonotus vomer occur at Wandong in what appear 
to be passage beds between the Melbournian and 

The Yeringian of Victoria is far richer in trilobites 
than the preceding series, and includes the genera 
Proetus, Cyphaspis, Bronteus, Lichas, Odontopleura, 
Encrinurus, Calymene, Homalonotus, Cheirurus, and 
Phacops. The rocks in this division occur as mud- 
stones, limestones, and occasionally sandstones and 
conglomerates. The mudstones, however, prevail, and 
these pass insensibly into impure limestones of a 
blue-black colour, weathering to brown, as at Seville ; 
the change of structure indicating less turbid water. 
At Lilydale, and on the Thomson River, as well as 
at Loyola and Waratah Bay, almost pure limestone 
occurs, which represents clear water conditions, not 
necessarily deep ; there, however, trilobites are 
scarce, and the prevailing fauna is that of an ancient 
coral reef. Some described Yeringian species are 
Lichas australis (Fig. 110 A), Odontopleura jenkinsi 
(Fig. HOB) (found also in New South Wales), En- 
crinurus punctatus (Fig. HOC), Calymene tubercu- 



A — Iyichas australis, McCoy. Silurian (Yeringian) . Victoria 
B—Odontopleura jenkinsi- Kth. fil. and Mitch. Silurian. N.S.Wales 
C — Kncrinurus punctatus, Brunnich sp. Silurian. N.S.Wales 
D — Phacops sweeti, Kth. fil. and Mitch. Silurian. N.S. Wales 
B — Phacops serratus, Foerste. Silurian. N.S. Wales 

losa, Bronteus enormis, Phacops sweeti, and P. ser- 
ratus (Fig. 110 E). In Calymene ("covered up") 
the joints of the thorax are facetted at the angles, so 
that each plenron could work over that immediately 
behind; in consequence of this it could roll itself up 
like a woodlouse or slater, hence the name of the 
genus. This trilobite also occurs in England, and is 
there known amongst the quarrymen and fossil col- 
lectors as the "Dudley Locust.' ' Perhaps the most 
characteristic and common trilobite of the Yeringian 
series in Victoria is Phacops sweeti (Fig. HOD), 
formerly identified with Barrande's P. fecundus, 
from which it differs in the longer and larger eye 
with more numerous lenses. It is found in Victoria 


in the Upper Yarra district near the junction of the 
Woori Yallock and the Yarra Rivers; north-west of 
Lily dale ; near Seville ; at Loyola near Mansfield ; and 
at Fraser's Creek near Springfield, Kilmore. 

In New South Wales trilobites are abundant in the 
Yass district, amongst other localities, where the 
upper beds, corresponding to the Yeringian of Vic- 
toria, are well developed. Dalmanites meridianus 
is common to the Silurian of New South Wales, Vic- 
toria, and Tasmania. In Victoria this handsome 
species is found in the hard, brown, sandy mud- 
stone of Broadhurst's and Kilmore Creeks, and, as 
previously noted, in the hard, blue mudstone of Wan- 
dong. At the latter locality specimens may be found 
in the railway ballast quarry, where they are known 
to the workmen as "fossil butterflies. ' ' The species 
also occurs at the famous fossil locality of Hatton's 
Corner, Yass; at Bowning; and at Limestone Creek, 
all in New South Wales. Other trilobites occurring 
in the Silurian of New South Wales are Odonto- 
pleura jenkinsi, 0. bowning ensis, Cheirarus insignis 
and Phacops latigenalis (Fig. 109 D). 

In the Wangapeka series of New Zealand the cal- 
careous shales and limestones of the upper division 
contain Calymene blnmenbachii, Homalonotus knigh- 
tii and H. expansus. 

Devonian Trilobites. — 

Trilobites suddenly became rare in the Australian 
Devonian. The only known examples of trilobite re- 
mains belong to a species of Cheirurus occasionally 
found in the Middle Devonian limestone of Buchan, 



Victoria ; and a species of Proetus in the Devonian 
of Barker Gorge, Napier Range, West Australia. 
Carbopermian Trilobites.— 

Trilobites of Carbopermian age are found in New 
South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. 
All the genera belong to the family Proetidae. The 
genera Phillipsia (P. seminifera, Fig. Ill A), Griff- 
thides (G. eichwaldi, Fig. Ill B), and Br achy met opus 


A — Phillipsia seminifera, Phillips. Carboniferous. N.S. Wales 
B — Griffithides eichwaldi, Waldheim. Carboniferous. N.S. Wales 
C — Brachymetopus strzelecki. McCoy. Carboniferous. N.S. Wales 
D — Kstheria cog-hlani, Cox. Triassic. N.S. Wales 

(B. strzelecki, Fig. Ill C) occur in New South Wales. 
Griffithides eichwaldi is also found in Queensland. 
Other Queensland species are Phillipsia woodwardi, 
P. seminifera var. australasica and P. dubia. Phillip- 
sia grandis is found in the Carbopermian of the Gas- 
coyne River, Western Australia. 


Phyllopoda in Carboniferous, Triassic and Jurassic. 
The PHYLLOPODA, which belong to the Crus- 
tacea in the strict sense of the term, comprise the 
Estheriidae and Cladocera (water-fleas). The for- 
mer group is represented by Leaia mitchelli, which 
is found in the Upper Carboniferous or Carboper- 
mian of the Newcastle District, New South Wales. 
In the still later Hawkesbury series (Triassic) of 
New South Wales, Estheria coghlani (Fig. HID) 
occurs. This species is a minute form, the carapace 
measuring from 1.25mm. to 2mm. in the longer dia- 
meter of the shell. In the upper part of the Wairoa 
Series (Triassic) of Nelson, New Zealand, there is 
found another species of Estheria, identified with a 
European form E. minuta. Estheria mangaliensis is 
another form occurring in the Jurassic (Ipswich 
series) of Queensland. At the present day these little 
Estheriae sometimes swarm in countless numbers in 
freshwater lakes or salt marshes. 

Ostracoda: Their Structure. — 

Passing on to the next group, the bivalved OSTRA- 
CODA, we note that these have existed from the 
earliest geological periods to the present day. They 
are usually of minute size, commonly about the six- 
teenth of an inch in length, although some attained 
a length of nearly one inch (Leperditia) . Their 
bodies are indistinctly segmented, and are enclosed 
within a horny or calcareous shell. This shell con- 
sists of two valves which are joined along the back 
by a ligament or hinge, the ends and ventral edge 
remaining quite free. The pairs of appendages pre- 
sent are the antennae (2), mandibles (1), maxillae 


(2), and thoracic feet (2). The only portion found 
in the fossil state is the bivalved carapace, the two 
valves being frequently met with still united, espe- 
cially when these tiny animals have settled down 
quietly on the sea-bed and have been quickly cov- 
ered with sediment. 

Features of the Ostracod Carapace. — 

Since the body parts of the ostracod are wanting 
in the fossil examples, the generic determination 
is attended with some difficulty, especially in regard 
to the smooth or bean-shaped forms. The chief 
distinctive characters to note are, the contour of the 
carapace seen in three directions (top, side and end 
views), the structure of the hinge, and the position 
and figure of the muscle-spots or points of adhesion 
of the muscular bands which hold or relax the two 
valves. The valves in certain genera fit closely upon 
one another. In others, one overlaps the other, the 
larger being sometimes the right (as in Leperditia) , 
sometimes the left (as in Leperditella) . The hinge- 
line is often simple or flange-like, or it may consist 
of a groove and corresponding bar, or there may be 
a series of teeth and sockets. Lateral eye-tubercles 
are sometimes seen on the surface of the valve, whilst 
in the animal there was also a small eye. 

Habits of Ostracoda. — 

Ostracoda swarmed in many of the streams, lakes 
and seas of past geological times, and they still exist 
in vast numbers under similar conditions. Like some 
other minute forms of life, they played a most im- 
portant part in building up the rock formations of 


the sedimentary series of the earth's crust; and by 
the decomposition of the organism itself they are 
of real economic value, seeing that in some cases their 
decay resulted in the subsequent production of oil 
or kerosene shales and bituminous limestones. The 
Carboniferous oil shales in the Lothians of Scotland, 
for example, are crowded with the carapaces of Os- 
tracoda associated with the remains of fishes. 

Cambrian Ostracoda. — 

Some undescribed forms of the genus Leperditia 
occur in the hard, sub-crystalline Cambrian Lime- 
stone of Curramulka, South Australia. 

Silurian Ostracoda. — 

In Victoria and New South Wales the oldest rocks 
from which we have obtained the remains of Ostra- 
coda up to the present, are the uppermost Silurians, 
in which series they occur both in the limestone and 
the mudstone. In Victoria their bivalved carapaces 
are more often found in the limestone ; but one genus, 
Beyrichia, is also met with in abundance in the mud- 
stone. These mudstones, by the way, must have 
originally contained a large percentage of carbonate 
of lime, since the casts of the shells of mollusca are 
often excessively abundant in the rock, and the mud- 
stone is cavernous, resembling an impure, decalcified 
limestone. These Yeringian mudstones of Victoria 
seem, therefore, to be the equivalent of the calcareous 
shales met with in the Wenlock and Gotland Series 
in Europe; a view entirely in accordance with the 
character of the remainder of the fauna. One of 
the commonest of the Silurian ostracods is Beyrichia 
kloedeni, a form having an extensive distribution in 



A — Beyrichia wooriyallockensis, Chapm. Silurian (Yer.) Victoria 
B — Xestoleberis lily dalen sis, Chapm. Silurian (Yer.) Victoria 
C — Argilloecia acuta, Jones and Kirkby. Silurian (Yer.) Victoria 
D— Bythocypris caudalis, Jones. Silurian (Yer.) Victoria 
K — Primitia reticristata, Jones. Silurian (Yer.) Victoria 

Europe. It occurs in the Silurian mudstone of the 
Upper Yarra District. Other species of the same 
genus are B. wooriyallockensis (Fig. 112 A), distin- 
guished from the former by differences in the shape 
of the lobes and its longer valves; also a form with 
narrow lobes, B. kilmoriensis ; and the ornate B. mac- 
coyiana, var. australis. Of the smooth-valved forms, 
mention may be made of Bythocypris hollii, B. cau- 
dalis (Fig. 112 D), and the striking form, Macrocy- 
pris flexuosa. Regarding the group of the Primitiae, 
of which as many as thirteen species and varieties 
have been described from the Lilydale Limestone, we 
may mention as common forms P. reticristata (Fig. 
112 E) and P. punctata. This genus is distinguished 


by the bean-shaped or purse-shaped carapace, with 
its well developed marginal flange and mid-dorsal pit. 
Other genera which occur in our Silurians and are of 
great interest on account of their distribution else- 
where, are Isochilina, Aparchites, Xestoleberis, Aech- 
mina, and Argilloecia. 

The largest ostracod yet described from Austra- 
lia, measuring more than a quarter of an inch in 
length, occurs in the Upper Silurian of Cliftonwood, 
near Yass, New South Wales. It belongs to the genus 
Leperditia (L. shearsbii), and is closely related to 
L. marginata, Keyserling sp. ; which occurs in strata 
of similar age in the Swedish and Russian Baltic 
area. A limestone at Fifield, New South Wales, 
probably of Silurian age, contains Primitia, Klot- 
denia, and Beyrichia. 
Devonian Ostracoda. — 

The little Primitia cuneus (Fig. 113 A) withabean- 
shaped carapace and median pit or depression occurs 
somewhat frequently in the Middle Devonian Lime- 
stone of Buchan, Victoria. Another species, Primitia 
yassensis, is found in the shaly rock of Narrengullen 
Greek, New South Wales. It is probable that many 
other species of the group of the ostracoda remain 
to be described from Australian Devonian rocks. 

Carboniferous Ostracoda. — 

In Queensland a conspicuous little ostracod is Bey- 
richia varicosa from the Star Beds of Corner Creek. 

Carbopermian Ostracoda. — 

In the Carbopermian of Cessnock, New South 
Wales, Primitia dunii occurs; and in that of Far- 
ley is found Jonesina etheridgei. From both these 



A — Primitia cuneus, Chapm. Mid. Devonian. Victoria 

B — Kntomis jonesi, de Kon. Carboniferous. New South Wales 

C — Synaphe mesozoica, Chapm sp. Triassic. New South Wales 

D—Cy there lobulata, Chapm. Jurassic. West Australia 

K — Paradoxorhyncha foveolata, Chapm. Jurassic. West Australia 

F — IyOxoconcha jurassica, Chapm. Jurassic. West Australia 

G — Cytheropteron australiense, Chapm. Jurassic. West Australia 

localities Leperditia prominens was also obtained. 
Another species from New South Wales is Entomis 
jonesi (Fig. 113 B), described from the Muree Sand- 
stone by de Koninck. 
Triassic Ostracoda. — 

The Triassic (Wiannamatta Shales) of Grose Vale, 
New South Wales has afforded a few specimens of 
ostracoda belonging to Synaphe ($. mesozoica, Fig. 
113 C), f Darwinula, and f Cytheridea. 
Jurassic Ostracoda. — 

The marine Jurassic strata of Western Australia 
at Geraldton, have yielded a small but interesting 
series of ostracoda, largely of modern generic types, 
The genera, which were found in a rubbly Trigonia- 



Limestone, are Cythere, Paradoxorhyncha, Loxocon- 
cha, and Cytheropteron. 

Cainozoic Ostracoda. — 

The fossiliferous clays and calcareous sands of the 
southern Australian Cainozoic beds often contain 
abundant remains of ostracoda. The moderately 
shallow seas in which the fossiliferous clays, such as 
those of Balcombe's Bay, were laid down, teemed 
with these minute bivalved Crustacea. All the forms 
found in these beds are microscopic. They either 
belong to living species, or to species closely allied 
to existing forms. Some of the more prominent of 
the Balcombian species are Cythere senticosa, a form 
which is now found living at Tenedos, and C. clavi- 


A— Bairdia amygdaloides. G. S. Brady. Balcombian. Victoria 
B— Cythere clavigera, G. S. Brady. Balcombian. Victoria 
C— Cythere scabrocuneata, G. S. Brady. Balcombian. Victoria 
D— Cytherella punctata, G. S. Brady. Balcombian. Victoria 


gera (Fig. 114 B), with the young form sometimes 
referred to as C. militarise a species which may still 
be dredged alive in Hobson's Bay. Other genera 
common in these clays are Bairdia, with its broad, 
pear-shaped carapace, represented by the still living 
B. amygdaloides (Fig. 114 A). Gytherella, with its 
compressed, subquadrate carapace, as seen in C. 
punctata (Fig. 114 D), a species having an elaborate 
series of muscle-spots, and which, like the previous 
species, is found living in Australian seas; and Mac- 
rocypris, with its slender, pointed, pear-shaped out- 

Cirripedia: Their Habits and Structure. — 

modifications of the higher group of Crustacea 
(Eucrustacea) date back to Ordovician times. They 
appear to have tried every possible condition of exis- 
tence ; and although they are mostly of shallow water 
habits, some are found at the great depth of 2,000 
fathoms (over two miles). Those which secrete lime 
or have calcareous shells, attach themselves to stones, 
pieces of wood, shell-fish, crabs, corals and sea-weeds. 
Others are found embedded in the thick skin of whales 
and dolphins, or in cavities which they have bored 
in corals or shells of molluscs. Some are found para- 
sitic in the stomachs of crabs and lobsters, or within 
other cirripedes. They begin life, after escaping 
from the egg, as a free-swimming, unsegmented larva 
("nauplius" stage), and before settling down, pass 
through the free-swimming, segmented "cypris" 
stage, which represents the pupa condition, and in 
which state they explore their surroundings in search 


of a suitable resting place for their final change and 
fixed condition. Just before this occurs, glands are 
developed in the pupa barnacle, which open into the 
suckers of the first pair of appendages or antennae. 
When a suitable place for fixation has been found, 
these glands pour out a secretion which is not dis- 
solved by water, and thus the barnacle is fixed head 
downwards to its permanent position. The com- 
pound eyes of the "cypris" stage disappear, and 
henceforth the barnacle is blind. The characteristic 
plates covering the barnacle are now developed, and 
the six pairs of swimming feet become the cirri or 
plumes, with which the barnacle, by incessant wav- 
ing, procures its food. In short, as remarked by one 
authority, it is a crustacean " fixed by its head, and 
kicking the food into its mouth with its legs." 

Cirripedes may be roughly divided into two 
groups, the Acorn Barnacles and the Goose Barnacles. 
Although dissimilar in general appearance, they pass 
through identical stages, and are closely related in 
most of their essential characters. The latter forms 
are affixed by a chitinous stalk or peduncle, whilst 
the acorn barnacles are more or less conical and 
affixed by the base. 

Silurian Cirripedes. — 

The stalked barnacles are probably the oldest 
group, being found as far back as the Ordovician 
period. In Australia the genus Turrilepas occurs 
in Silurian rocks, T. mitchelli (Fig. 115 A) being 
found at Bowning in the Yass District of New 
South Wales. The isolated plume-like plates of 



/ A 

/.'■■'■'■■ '-I ' \ 




i 4 \ 





A f V_j 

Rostrum\y ■ . 

A— Turrilepas mitchelli, Eth. fil. Silurian. New South Wales 

B — Turrilepas yeringiae, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 

C — (?) Pollicipes aucklandicus, Hector sp. Cainozoic (Oamaru 

series). New Zealand 


A — Iyepas anatifera, Iy. Common Goose Barnacle. living 
B — I,epas pritchardi, Hall. Cainozoic. Victoria 


T. ycringiae (Fig. 115 B) are not uncommon in the 
olive mudstone of the Lilydale District in Victoria. 

Cainozoic Lepadidae. — 

The genus Lepas (the modern goose barnacles) is 
represented by isolated plates in the Cainozoic (Jan- 
jukian) limestones and marls of Waurn Ponds, and 
Torquay near Geelong: it also occurs in a stratum of 
about the same age, the nodule bed, at Muddy Creek, 
near Hamilton, Victoria (L. pritchardi, Fig. 116). 
In New Zealand the gigantic cirripede, fPollicipes 
aucklandicus (Fig. 115 C), occurs in the Motutapu 

Cainozoic Balanidae. — 

The Acorn Barnacles are represented in our Caino- 
zoic shell marls and clays by a species of Balanus 
from the Janjukian of Torquay; whilst two species 
of the genus occur in the Kalimnan beds at Beau- 
maris, Port Phillip, in similar beds in the Hamilton 
District, and at the Gippsland Lakes. 

Phyllocarida : Their Structure. — 

A large and important group of the higher Crus- 
tacea, but confined to the older rocks of Victoria, is 
the order PHYLLOCARIDA. This seems to form a 
link between the Entomostraca, including the bi- 
valved Ostracoda and the well-known group of the 
lobsters, shrimps and crabs. The body of these phyllo- 
carids consists of five segments to the head, eight 
to the thorax, and from two to eight to the abdomen. 
The portion usually preserved in this group is the 
carapace, which covers the head and thorax, and 
although often in one piece, is sometimes hinged, or 


otherwise articulated along the back. In front of 
the carapace there is a moveable plate, the rostrum 
or beak (Fig. 117). There are two pairs of anten- 
nae to the head, and the animal is provided with a 
pair of stalked compound eyes. The thoracic seg- 
ments are furnished with soft leaf-like legs as in the 

:c yj 

4 \>\ rostrum 
\2r; j (?) antennae 

Fig. 1 1 7— Ceratiocaris papilio, Salter. 

Silurian. Lanarkshire. 

{After H. Woodward) 

Phyllopods. The abdomen is formed of ring-like 
segments, and generally terminates in a sharp tail- 
piece or telson, often furnished with lateral spines. 
In many respects the ancient phyllocarids correspond 
with the living genus Nebalia, which is found inhabit- 
ing the shallow waters of the Mediterranean and else- 

Ordovician Phyllocarids. — 

Phyllocarids of the Lower Ordovician slates are 
referred to the genera Rhinopterocaris, Caryocaris, 
Saccocaris and Hymenocaris. The first-named is the 






■ 4 

B i 

c - 


- ^ 



A — Rhinopterocaris maccoyi, Kth. fil. sp. I,. Ordovician. Victoria 
B—Caryocaris angusta, Chapm. Iy. Ordovician. Victoria 
C — Saccocaris tetragona, Chapm. Iy. Ordovician. Victoria 


/W f 







xf - \ 


V ■■ 

<s • 

, *" : * 

^%^4 ^^^fl^^^l^^-^ 



U | 


sail - opines 

A— Ceratiocaris pritchardi, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 

B— Ceratiocaris cf. murchisoni, Agassiz sp. Silurian. Victoria 

C — Ceratiocaris pinguis, Chapm. Silurian. Victoria 


commonest type, and is found in slates of the Lance- 
field, Bendigo and Castlemaine Series at the locali- 
ties named, as well as at Dromana. RMnopterocaris 
(Fig. 118 A) is readily distinguished by its long — 
ovate outline, and this, together with its wrinkled 
chitinous appearance makes it resemble the wing of a 
dipterous insect. Caryocaris (Fig. 118 B) is a smaller 
and narrower form which occurs in the Victorian 
Lower Ordovician slates, as well as in ice-borne 
blocks derived from the Ordovician, at Wynyard, in 
N.W. Tasmania. 

Silurian Phyllocarids. — 

The chief type of Phyllocarid in the Silurian is 
Ceratiocaris (Fig. 119). The carapace is typically 
ovate, straight on one edge, the dorsal, and convexly 
curved on the other, the ventral. They resemble 
bean-pods in outline, hence the name " pod-shrimps/ 9 
Several species are known from the Victorian shales, 
mudstones, and sandstones; the forms found in Aus- 
tralia if complete would seldom attain five inches 
in length, whilst some British species are known to 
reach the exceptional length of two feet. The long, 
grooved and jointed telson is not uncommon in the 
sandstones of Melbourne and Kilmore. Other genera 
described from Victoria are Aptychopsis and Dithy- 

Lower Cretaceous Crab. — 

The earliest example of the DEC APOD A in the 
Australian rocks, so far recorded, is the Lower Cre- 
taceous Prosopon etheridgei (Fig. 120 A) from 
Queensland, which has affinities with some Jurassic 
and Neocomian crabs found in Europe. Other crus- 



tacean remains of less decipherable nature occur in 
this same deposit. 
Cainozoic Crabs. — 

Of the Cainozoic decapod Crustacea there is a Vic- 
torian species of a stalk-eyed crab, Ommatocarcinus 
corioensis (Fig. 120 B), found in the marls of Cur- 
rig. 120— FOSSIL CRABS and INSECTS. 

A — Prosopon etheridgei, H. Woodw. T,. Cretaceous. Queensland 
B — Ommatocarcinus corioensis, Cressw. sp. Cainozoic (Jan.) Vic. 
C— Harpactocarcinus tumidus, H. Woodw. Cainozoic (Oamaru). 

New Zealand 
D — Aeschna flindersensis, H. Woodw. Iy. Cretaceous. Queensland 
K — Ephemera culleni, Bth. fil. and Olliff. Cainozoic (Deep I^eads). 

New South Wales 

lewis and Port Campbell, and probably of Janjukian 
age. Various portions of similar Crustacea, consist- 
ing of claws and fragmentary carapaces, are found 
from time to time in the Victorian clays and lime- 
stones of Balcombian and Janjukian ages, but they 
are insufficient for identification. A carapace of one 
of the Oxystomata (with rounded cephalothorax and 


non-salient frontal region) has occurred in the Ka 
limnan marl of the Beaumaris Cliffs, Port Phillip. 
It is closely allied to a crab now found in Hobson's 
Bay and generally along the Victorian coast. 

Kemains of a shore-crab (Fam. Cancridae) are 
found at three localities, in the Oamaru Series, in 
New Zealand; near Brighton, in Nelson and at 
Wharekuri in the Waitaki Valley. It has been de- 
scribed under the name of Harpactocarcinus tumidus 
(Fig. 120 C), a genus of the Cyclometopa or "bow 
crabs. ' ' 

Pleistocene Lobster. — 

Numerous remains of a lobster, Thalassina emerii 
(see antea. Fig. 20), supposed to be of Pleistocene 
age, occur in nodules found on Queensland and North 
Australian (Port Darwin) beaches. 

Eurypterids in the Silurian. — 

The order EURYPTEBIDA comprises an extinct 
group of Crustacea closely allied to the modern King- 
crab (Limuhis). The body was covered with a thin 
chitinous skeleton, ornamented with regular scale- 
like markings. This group is represented in Vic- 
torian rocks by the remains of Pterygotus ("Sea- 
scorpions' 7 ), animals which often attained a length of 
six feet. Pterygotus (see Fig. 121 A) had the fore 
part of the body fused, forming the cephalo-thorax, 
which was furnished with anterior, marginal facet- 
ted eyes and central ocelli or smaller simple ones. 
To the ventral surface of the body were attached six 
pairs of appendages. The first pair are modified 
antennae with pincer-like terminations, used for pre- 




l «t *** 


// \ U 

A — Pterygotus osiliensis, Schmidt. I. of Oesel. {After Schmidt) 

B — Pterygotus australis, McCoy. Part of a body-segment. Silurian 
(Melb.) Victoria 

hensile purposes. Then come four pairs of slender 
walking feet. The sixth pair of appendages is in 
the form of powerful swimming feet or paddles, at 
the bases of which are the comb-like jaws. The ab- 
domen consists of thirteen joints, the last of which, 
the telson, is spatulate and posteriorly pointed. Frag- 
ments of a tolerably large species of Pterygotus 
occur in the Silurian shales of South Yarra, Mel- 
bourne, Victoria. It was probably about 18 inches 
in length when complete. Of this form, known as 
P. australis (Fig. 121 B), portions of the chelate 
(clawed) appendages, and parts of the abdominal 
segments have been found from time to time, but no 
complete fossil has yet been discovered. 


Jurassic Insects. — 

Of the group of the INSECT A, the Ipswich Coal 
measures (Jurassic) of Queensland have yielded an 
interesting buprestid beetle (Mesostigmodera), whilst 
beds of the same age in New South Wales contain 
the remains of a probable Cicada, associated with 
leaves of the fern Taeniopteris. 

Lower Cretaceous Dragon-fly. — 

From the Lower Cretaceous of the Flinders River 
district, Queensland, there has been obtained a fossil 
dragon-fly, Aeschna flindersensis (Fig. 120 D). 

Cainozoic Insects. 

Certain Cainozoic beds of New South Wales, of 
the age of the Deep-leads of Victoria, and probably 
equivalent to the Kalimnan terrestrial series, contain 
a species of Cydnas, a bug-like insect belonging to 
the order Rhynchota ; and there are in the same series 
a Midge (Chironomus) , a Day-fly (Ephemera, Fig. 
120 E) and several beetles (f Lagria, Palaeolycus, 
Cyphon and Oxytelus). The occurrence of these in- 
sects of the Deep-leads helps to complete the land- 
scape picture of those far-off Lower Pliocene times, 
when the old river systems brought down large con- 
tributions of vegetable waste from higher lands, in 
the form of twigs with leaves and fruits; with 
occasional evidences of the rich and varied fauna of 
insect life which was especially promoted in the damp 
and vegetative areas of the lower lands. 




Ptychoparia howchini, Eth. fil. Lower Cambrian: South Aus- 

Dolichomeiopus tatei, H. Woodward. Lower Cambrian: South 

Olenellus browni, Eth. fil. Lower Cambrian: Northern Terri- 

Agnostus australiensis, Chapm. Upper Cambrian: Victoria. 

Ptychoparia thielei, Chapm. Upper Cambrian: Victoria. 

Dikellocephalus florentinensis, Eth. fil. Upper Cambrian: Tas- 

Dinesus ida, Eth. fil. Lower Ordovician: Victoria. 

Asaphus illarensis, Eth. fil. Ordovician: Central S. Aus- 

Ampyx parvulus, Forbes, var. jikaensis, Chapm. Silurian 
( Melbournian ) : Victoria. 

Illaenus jutsoni, Chapm. Silurian (Melbournian) : Victoria. 

Proetus euryceps, McCoy. Silurian: Victoria. 

Cyphaspis spryi, Gregory. Silurian (Melbournian) : Victoria. 

Bronteus enormis, Eth. fil. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Lichas australis, McCoy. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Odontopleura jenkinsi, Eth. fil. Silurian: New South Wales. 
Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Encrinurus punctatus, Brunnich sp. Silurian: New South 
Wales. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Encrinurus {Gromus) murchisoni, de Koninck. Silurian: 
New South Wales. 

Encrinurus {Cromus) spryi, Chapm. Silurian (Melbour- 
nian) : Victoria. 

Calymene blumenbachii, Brongn. Silurian (Wangapeka 
Series) : New Zealand. 

Homalonotus expansus, Hector. Silurian (Wangapeka Series) : 
New Zealand. 

Homalonotus knightii, Konig. Silurian (Wangapeka Series) : 
New Zealand. 

Homalonotus harrisoni, McCoy. Silurian (Melbournian) : 

Homalonotus vomer, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Cheirurus insignis, Beyrich. Silurian: New South Wales. 

Phacops sweeti, Eth. fil. and Mitch. Silurian: New South 
Wales. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Phacops serratus, Foerste. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 
Silurian: New South Wales. 


Dalmanites meridianus, Eth. fil. and Mitch, sp. Silurian: 

New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. 
Cheirurus sp. Middle Devonian: Victoria. 
Proetus sp. Devonian: Western Australia. 
Phillipsia seminifera, Phillips. Carbopermian : New South 

Phillipsia grandis, Eth. fil. Carbopermian: W. Australia and 

Griffith-ides eichioaldi, Waldheim. Carbopermian: New South 

Wales and Queensland. 
Brachy met opus strzelecki, McCoy. Carbopermian: New 

South Wales. 


Leaia mitchelli, Eth. fil. Upper Carboniferous: New South 

Estheria coghlani, Cox. Trias: New South Wales. 
Estheria minuta, Alberti sp. Trias: New Zealand. 
Estheria mangaliensis, Jones. Jurassic: Queensland. 


Leperditia sp. Lower Cambrian: S. Australia. 

Beyrichia kloedeni, McCoy. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Beyrichia wooriyallockensis, Chapm. Silurian (Yeringian) : 

Beyrichia maccoyiana, Jones, var. australis, Chapm. Silurian: 
(Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Bythocypris hollii, Jones. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Macrocypris fleccuosa, Chapm. Silurian (Yeringian) Victoria. 

Primitia reticristata, Jones. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Leperditia shearsbii, Chapm. Silurian: New South Wales. 

Primitia euneus, Chapm. Middle Devonian: Victoria. 

Beyrichia, varicosa, T. R. Jones. Carboniferous: Queensland. 

Primitia dunii, Chapm. Carbopermian: New South Wales. 

Jonesina etheridgei, Chapm. Carbopermian: New South 

Entomis jonesi, de Koninck. Carbopermian: New South 

Synaphe mesozoica, Chapm. sp. Trias: New South Wales. 

Cy there lobulata, Chapm. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Paradoxorhyncha foveolata, Chapm. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Loxoconcha jurassica, Chapm. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Cytheropteron australiense, Chapm. Jurassic: W. Australia. 

Bairdia amygdaloides, Brady. Cainozoic and living: Victoria. 

Cy there senticosa, Baird. Cainozoic. Also living: Victoria. 

Cy there clavigera, G. S. Brady. Cainozoic and living: Vic- 


Cytherella punctata, G. S. Brady. Cainozoic and living: 

Cytherella pulchra, G. S. Brady. Cainozoic and living: Vic- 


Turrilepas mitchelli, Eth. fil. Silurian: New South Wales. 

Turrilepas yeringiac, Chapm. Silurian (Yeringian) : Victoria. 

Lepas pritchardi, Hall. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Victoria. 

(?) Pollicipes aucklandicus, Hector sp. Cainozoic (Oam am 
Series) : New Zealand. 

Balanus sp. Cainozoic (Janjukian and Kalimnan) : Vic- 


Rhinopterocaris maccoyi, Eth. fil. sp. Lower Ordovician: Vic- 

Hymenocaris hepburnensis, Chapm. L. Ordovician: Victoria. 

Caryocaris marri, Jones and Woodw. L. Ordovician: Vic- 
toria and Tasmania. 

Caryocaris angusta, Chapm. L. Ordovician: Victoria. 

Saccocaris tetragona, Chapm. L. Ordovician: Victoria. 

Ceratiocaris cf. murchisoni, Agassiz sp. Silurian: Victoria. 

Ceratiocaris pinguis, Chapm. Silurian (Melbournian) : Vic- 

Ceratiocaris pritchardi, Chapm. Silurian: Victoria. 

Aptychopsis victoriae, Chapm. Silurian (Melbournian) : Vic- 

Dithyrocaris praecooc, Chapm. Silurian (Melbournian) : 


Prosopon etheridgei, H. Woodw. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 

Ommatocarcinus corioensis, Cresswell sp. Cainozoic (Jan- 
jukian) : Victoria. 

Ebalia sp. Cainozoic (Kalimnan) : Victoria. 

Bar pact ocarcinus tumidus, H. Woodw. Cainozoic (Oamaru 
Series) : New Zealand. 

Thalassina emerii, Bell. (?) Pleistocene: Queensland and 
Northern Territory. 


Pterygotus australis, McCoy. Silurian (Melbournian) : Vic- 



Mesostig modem typica, Etheridge fil. and Olliff. Jurassic: 

(?) Cicada lowei, Etheridge fil. and Olliff. Jurassic: New 

South Wales. 
Aeschna flindersensie, H. Woodward. Lower Cretaceous: 

Chironomus venerabilis, Eth. fil. and Oil. Cainozoic: New 

South Wales. 
Ephemera culleni, Eth. fil. and Oil. Cainozoic: New South 

Palaeolycus problematicum, Eth. fil. and Oil. Cainozoic: New 

South Wales. 



McCoy, F.Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. III. 1876, pp. 13-20, pis. XXII. 
and XXIII. (Silurian). Hector, J. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 
vol. IX. 1877, p. 602, pi. XXVII. (Homalonotus) . Wood- 
ward, H. Geol. Mag., Dec. III. vol. I. 1884, pp. 342-344, 
pi. XL (Cambrian). Mitchell, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. New 
South Wales, vol. II. 1888, pp. 435-440, pi. XL (Silurian). 
Foerste, A. F. Bull. Sci. Lab. Denison Univ., vol. III. 
pt. V. 1888, pp. 122-128, pi. XIII. Etheridge, R. jnr. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. V. pp. 501-504, 
pi. XVIII. (Bronteus) . Idem, Pari. Papers, Leg. 
Assemb. S.A., vol. I. No. 23, 1892; ibid., vol. 2, No. 52, 
1893 (Asaphas). Id., Geol. Queensland, 1892, pp/ 214- 
216, pis. VII. VIII. and XLIV. (Carboniferous). Id., 
Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. VI. (N.S.), 1894, pp. 189 194, pi. 
XL (Bronteus). Id., ibid, vol. VIII. (N.S.), 1896, pp. 
56, 57, pi. I. (Dinesus). Id., Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. V. 
No. 2, 1904, pp. 98-101, pi. X. (Cambrian). Id., Trans. 
R. Soc. S. Austr., vol. XXII. 1898, pp. 1-3, pi. IV. (Cam- 
brian). Etheridge, R. jnr. and Mitchell, J. Proc. Linn. 
Soc. New South Wales, vol. VI. 1892, pp. 311-320, pi, 
XXV.; ibid., vol. VIII. 1894, pp. 169-178, pis. VI. VII. ; 
ibid., vol. X. 1896, pp. 486-511, pis. XXXVIII.-XL. ; ibid., 
vol. XXI. 1897, pp. 694-721, pis. L.-LV.. Tate, R. Rep. 
Horn Exped., 1896, Part 3, Palaeontology, pp. Ill, 112, 
pi. III. De Koninek, L. G. Mem. Geol. Surv. New South 
Wales, Pal. No. 6, 1898, pp. 36-47 pi. I. (Silurian); pp. 
276-281, pi. XXIV. (Carboniferous). Gregory, J. W. 
Proc. R. Soc. Vict, vol. XIII. (N.S.) pt. II, 1901, pp. 
179-182, pi. XXII. (Cyphaspis). Ibid., vol. XV. (N.S.) 


pt. II. 1903, pp. 154-156, pi. XXVI. (Dinesus and Notasa- 
phus.) Chapman, F. Proc. K. Soc. Vict., vol. XXIII. 
(N.S.), pt. II. 1910, pp. 314-322, pis. LVIII. and LIX. 
(Cambrian). Ibid., vol. XXIV. (N.S.) pt. II. 1912, 
pp. 293-300, pis. LXI.-LXIII. (Silurian). 


Cox, J. C. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. V., pt. 3, 
1881, p. 276 {Estheria). Etheridge, K. jnr. ibid., vol. 
VII. 1893, pp. 307-310, text fig. (Leaia) . Idem, Mem. 
Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 1, 1888, pp. 6-8, 
pi. I. (Estheria) . 


Brady, G. S. in Etheridge, jnr. Geol. Mag., 1876, p. 334 (Caino- 
zoic). De Koninck, L. G. Mem. Geol. Surv. New South 
Wales, Pal. No. 6, 1898, pp. 33, 36 (Silurian); ibid., pp. 
275, 276, pi. XXIV. (Carboniferous). Chapman, F. Proc. 
R. Soc. Vict., vol. XVI. (N.S.), pt. II. 1904, pp. 199-204, 
pi. XXIII. (Jurassic). Idem, ibid., vol. XXII. (N.S.), 
pt. I. 1909, pp. 1-5, pi. I. (Leperditia) . Idem, Rec. 
Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. VIII. pt. 4, 1909, pp. 
1-3, pi. LIV. (Triassic). Idem, Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., 
vol. III. pt. 2, 1912, p. 221, pi. XXXVI. (Primitia). 
Idem, Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XV. (N.S.), pt. II. 1903, 
pp. 109-113, pi. XVI. (Beyrichia). Ibid., vol. XVII. 

(N.S.) pt. I. 1904, pp. 299-312, pis. XIII.-XVII. 

(Silurian) . 


Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. Mag., Dec. III. vol. VII. 1890, pp. 
337, 338, pi. XI. (Turrilepas) . Hall, T.S. Proc. R. Soc. 
Vict., vol. XV. (N.S.) pt. I. 1902, pp. 83, 84, pi. XI. 
(Lepas). Benham, W. B. Geol. Mag., Dec. IV. vol. X. 
pp. 110-119, pis. IX. X. (f Pollicipes). Chapman, F. 
Proc. R. Soc. Vict. vol. XXII. (N.S.) pt. II. 1910, pp. 
105-197, pis. XXVIII. XXIX. (Turrilepas). 


Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. 
III. pt. I. 1894, pp. 5-8, pi. IV. (Ordovician). Chap- 
man, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. vol. XV. (N.S.), pt. II. 1903, 
pp. 113-117, pi. XVIII. (Ordovician); ibid., vol. XVII. 

(N.S.) pt. I. 1904, pp. 312-315, pi. XVII.; ibid., vol. 
XXII. (N.S.), pt. II. 1910, pp. 107-110, pi. XXVIII. 

(Silurian). Idem, Rec. Geol. Surv. Vict., vol. III. pt. 2, 
1912, pp. 212, 213, pis. XVII. XVIII. (Ordovician). 



Bell, T. Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. I. 1845, pp. 03, 94. Text- 
fig. (Thalassina) . Woodward, H. Quart. Journ. GeoL 
Soc, vol. XXXII. 1876, pp. 51-53, pi. VII. {Harpacto- 
carcinus) . Idem. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 
vol. VII. (2), pt. 2, 1892. pp. 301-304 pi. IV. (Prosopon) . 

Hall, T. S. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XVII. (N.S.) pt. II. 
1905, pp. 356-360, pi. XXIII. (Ommatocarcinus) . 


McCoy, F. Geol. Mag. Dec. IV. vol. VI. 1899, pp. 193, 194,, 
text fig. (Pterygoius) . 


Woodward, H. Geol. Mag. Dec. III. vol. I. 1884, pp. 337-339,. 
pi. XI. (Aeschna) . Etheridge, R. jnr. and Olliff, A. S. 
Mem. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 7, 189Q 
(Mesozoic and Cainozoic). 



Vertebrates. — 

The above-named classes of animals are distin- 
guished from those previously dealt with, by the pre- 
sence of a vertebral column. The vertebral axis may 
be either cartilaginous as in some fishes, or bony as 
in the greater number of animals belonging to this 

Chordata. — 

AND FISHES. — The curious little ascidians or "sea- 
squirts, " belonging to the group Tunicata, are held 
by some authorities to be the degenerate descendants 
of a free-swimming animal having a complete noto- 
chord and nerve-tube, structures which are now only 
seen in the tails of their tadpole-like larvae. The 
fully developed tunicate is generally sessile and pro- 
vided with a thick outer coat (tunic) and muscular 
inner lining. This outer coat in some forms, as 
Leptoclinurn, is strengthened with tiny calcareous 
spicules, and these are sometimes found in the fossil 

257 q 


state in Cainozoic clays, as well as in some of the 
calcareous deep-sea oozes. The little stellate spicules 
of Leptoclinum are abundant in the Balcombian clays 
of Mornington, Victoria. 

Another primitive form with a notochord is the 
Lancelet, but this, having no hard parts, is not found 
in the fossil state. 

Primitive Types of Fishes. — 

FISHES. — The remains of fishes are naturally 
more abundant in the fossil condition, owing to their 
aquatic habits, than those of other vertebrates. The 
earliest fishes were probably entirely cartilaginous, 
and some have left only a mere trace or impression 
on the rocks in which they were embedded. These 
primitive fishes have no lower jaw, and are without 
paired limbs. They are sometimes placed in a class 
by themselves (AGNATHA). The orders of this 
primitive fish series as represented in Australasia are 
the Osteostraci ("bony shells"), of which the re- 
mains of the Cephalaspis-like head-shield of Thyestes 
has been found in the Silurian of N.E. Gippsland, 
Victoria (Fig. 122) ; and the Antiarchi, with its 
many-plated cuirass, armoured body-appendages, in- 
ternal bony tissue, and coarsely tuberculated exterior, 
as seen in Asterolepis australis, a fossil occasionally 
found in the Middle Devonian Limestone of Buchan, 

True Fishes. — Devonian. — 

Of the true fishes (Pisces), the Elasmobranchii 
("slit-gills"), a sub-class to which the modern sharks 
belong, are represented in the Devonian series by the 
paired spines of a form resembling Climatius, found 



both in Victoria and New South Wales. Remains 
of Dipnoi ("double-breather" or lung-fishes) occur 
in the Devonian of Barker Gorge, Western Austra- 
lia, represented by a new species allied to Coccostens 
("berry-bone" fish) ; and in a bed of the same age 
at the Murrumbidgee River, New South Wales by 
the cranial buckler of Ganorhynclius siissmilchi. 

Carboniferous Fishes. — 

The Lower Carboniferous sandstone of Burnt 
Creek and other localities near Mansfield, Victoria, 
contains an abundant fish fauna, associated with stems 

fig. 122— Incomplete Head-Shield of Thyestes magnificus, Chapm. 
From the Saurian tYeringian) of Wombat Creek, N.E. Gippsland. 
4/5 nat. size 



fig. 123 
Gyracanthides murrayi, 

A. S. Woodw. 

X,. Carboniferous. Mansfield, 


About 1/12 nat. size 

fig. 124 -TEETH and SCALES of PALAEOZOIC and 


: - 

. ^^.^^ x 


A— Strepsodus decipiens, A. S. Woodw. T,. Carboniferous. Victoria 
B— Elonichth.\s sweeti, A S. Woodw. I v Carboniferous. Victoria 
C— Corax anstralis, Chapm. I,. Cretaceous. Queensland 
D— Belonostomus sweeti, Eth. fil. and Woodw. I,. Cretaceous. Q. 

FISHES. 261 

of Lepidodendron. The slabs of sandstone are often 
ripple-marked and show signs of tracks and castings 
of shore-living animals. These deposits were prob- 
ably laid down in shallow water at the shore margin 
or in salt lagoons or brackish areas skirting the coast, 
into which at intervals the remains of the giant 
lycopods were drifted. The more important of these 
fish remains are Elasmobranchs, as Gyracanthides 
murrayi (Fig. 123) and Acanthodes australis; the 
Dipnoan, Ctenodus breviceps; a Rhizodont or fringe- 
finned ganoid, Strepsodus decipiens (Fig. 124 A); 
and a genus related to Palaeoniscus, Elonichthys (E. 
sweeti 9 Fig. 124 B, and E. gibbus). The defence 
spines of Gyracanthides are fairly abundant in the 
sandstones; whilst on some slabs the large enamelled 
scales of Strepsodus are equally conspicuous. 

From the sandstones of the same age, Lower Car- 
boniferous, in the Grampians of Western Victoria, 
some small but well-preserved spines belonging to 
the genus Physonemus have been found associated 
with a new variety of the well-known European Car- 
boniferous brachiopod, Lingula squamiformis (var. 

Carbopermian Fishes. — 

In the Carbopermian (Gympie Beds) of the Rock- 
hampton District, Queensland, a tooth of a Coch- 
liodont (" snail tooth") occurs, which has been 
doubtfully referred to the genus Deltodus ( ? D. aus- 
tralis). The Cochliodontidae show dentition remark- 
ably like that of the Cestracion or Port Jackson 
Shark. Another tooth having the same family rela- 


tionship has been referred to Tomodus ? convex us, 
Agassiz; this is from the Carbopermian of the Port 
Stephen district of New South Wales. Prom the 
Newcastle Coal Measures in New South Wales a 
Palaeoniscus-like fish, Urosthenes australis has been 

Carbopermian fish remains are rare in Western 
Australia. They comprise a wrinkled tooth of 
Edestus (E. davisii) from the Gascoyne River, be- 
longing to a fish closely related to the Port Jackson 
shark; and a cochliodont, Poecilodus (P. jonesi, Ag.) 
from the Kimberley district. 

Triassic Fishes. — 

Fossil fishes are important and numerous in Aus- 
tralian Triassic beds, especially in New South Wales. 
At the base of the Hawkesbury or close of the Nar- 
rabeen series, the railway ballast quarry near Gos- 
ford has yielded an extensive and extremely inter- 
esting collection. Near the floor of the quarry there 
is a band of sandy shale and laminated sandstone 
5 feet 9 inches in thickness, and this contains the fol- 
lowing genera : — A dipnoan, Gosfordia; and the fol- 
lowing ganoids or enamelled scale fishes — Myriolepis, 
Apateolepis, Dictyopyge, Belonorhynchas, Semiono- 
tus, Pristisoynus (see antea, Fig. 18), Cleithrolepis 
(Fig. 125), Pholidophorus and ? Peltopleurus. 

Upper Triassic Fishes. — 

In the middle of the Wianamatta or Upper Trias 

Series at St. Peter 's, near Sydney, which contains 
a fauna described as slightly older in aspect than 
that of Gosford, having Carbopermian affinities, 

FISHES. 263 

\^Xw- V 'V\\VtC-' •'- ' ■ : '^''V^vfieaaK^ 

wmm<v>xM^m ,* 

r^-'V- '' • -■; 40- 

' ■"■.^■■■■t 

;;>;:;■;;;? ■\';\>W { W 

.v.'- ;',:.: • . <;'• ■; : r'^-'- 

i n 

Fig. 125 — Cleithrolepis granulatus, Egcrton. 

Triassic (Hawkesbury Series). Gosford, New South Wales, 
nat. size. {After Smith Woodward). 

there occur in the hard shale or claystone the genera 
Plenracanthus (a Palaeozoic shark) ; Sagenodus (a 
dipnoan related to Ctenodus of the Victorian Car- 
boniferous; and the following ganoids, — Palaeonis- 
cus, Elonichthys, Myriolepis, Elpisopholis, Platyso- 
mus and Acentrophorus. Prom the soft shales were 
obtained Pdlaeoniscus, Sernionotus, Cleithrolepis and 
Pholidophorus ; an assemblage of genera somewhat 
comparable with the Gosford fauna. 

Lower Mesozoic Fishes. — 

From the Lower Mesozoic sandstone ( ?Triassic) of 
Tasmania, two species of Acrolepis have been de- 
scribed, viz., A. hamiltoni and A. tasmanicus. The 
former occurs in the thick bed of sandstone, of nearly 



1,000 feet, at Knocklofty; the latter species in the 
sandstone with Vertebraria conformably overlying 
the Carbopermian at Tinderbox Bay. 


1 — Ceratodus avus, A. S. Wobdw. I^eft splenial with lower tooth. 
Cape Paterson, Victoria. About % nat. size 

2 — Ceratodus forsteri, Krefft. I^eft lower tooth. giving. Queens- 
land. About l A nat. size 

3 — Phalangeal of Carnivorous Dinosaur. Cape Paterson. About 
zi nat. size 

4— Phalangeal of Megalosaurian. Wealden, Sussex, England. 
M nat. size 

Jurassic Pishes. — 

The Jurassic beds of Victoria contain three genera. 
Psilichthys selwyni, a doubtful palaeoniscid was de- 
scribed from Carapook, Co. Dundas; whilst Lepto- 

FISHES. 265 

Fig. 127— Scale of Ceratodus (Neoceratodus) (?)avus, A. S. Woodw. 
Jurassic. Kirrak, S. Gippsland, Victoria. About nat. size 

lepis, a genus found in the Trias of New South Wales 
and the Lias and Oolite of Europe, is represented by 
L. crassicauda from Casterton, associated with the 
typical Jurassic fern, Taeniopteris. In the Jurassic 
beds of South Gippsland, at Cape Paterson, an inter- 
esting splenial tooth of the mudfish, Ceratodus, was 
found, named C. avus (Fig. 126). Since then, in a 
bore-core from Kirrak near the same place a fish 
scale was discovered (Fig. 127) which, by its shape, 
size and structure seems to differ in no way from the 
living lung-fish of Queensland (Fig. 128). It 
is reasonable to infer that tooth and scale belong to 



•-> f 

/> ' 


ilik 4 

! '. "» '. *. 

, V v w 





Fig. 1 28 — The Queensland Lung-Pish 

or Barratnunda (Neoceratodus forsteri). About l/12th. nat. size 

{After Lydekker, in Warners Natural History). 

Fig. 1 29— Leptolepis gregarius, A. S. Woodw. 

Talbragar Series, Jurassic. Talbragar River, New South Wales 

Y 2 nat. size 

FISHES. 267 

the same species ; and in view of the close relationship 
of the tooth with that of the living mudfish, rather 
than with that of the Ceratodus found fossil in the 
Mesozoic of Europe, it may be referred to Ncoccra- 
todus, in which genus the living species is now placed. 
From the Jurassic beds (Talbragar Series) of New 
South Wales, an interesting collection of ganoid fishes 
has been described, comprising Coccolepis australis, 
Aphnelepis australis, Aetheolepis mirabilis, Archaeo- 
maene tenuis, A. robustus, Leptolepis talbragar ensis, 
L. lowei and L. gregarina (Fig. 129). 

Lower Cretaceous Pishes. — 

Fish remains are fairly abundant in the Lower Cre- 
taceous of Queensland. They comprise both the 
sharks and the ganoids. Of the sharks, a specimen, 
showing seven conjoined vertebrae has been named 
Lamna daviesii, from the Richmond Downs, Flinders 
River district; and a tooth referred to Lamna appen- 
diculatus, Agassiz, from Kamileroy, Leichhardt 
River, N.W. Queensland. The typical Cretaceous 
genus Corax is represented by a small tooth named 
C. australis (Fig. 124 C), from the Hamilton River, 
Queensland, and which closely approaches the tooth 
of Corax affinis, Agassiz, from the Upper Cretaceous 
of Europe. Of the ganoid fishes two genera, both 
members of the family Aspidorhynchidae, have been 
found in Queensland. Aspidorhynchus sp. and Be- 
lonostomus sweeti (Fig. 124 D) have both occurred 
at Hughenden, Flinders River district. The former 
genus has a slender body and produced rostrum; in 
Europe it is more characteristic of Jurassic strata. 
Belonostomus ranges from the Upper Oolite, Bavaria, 



to the Upper Cretaceous in other parts of the world. 
Remains of a species of Portheus, one of the predace- 
ous fishes which lived in the Cretaceous period, con- 
sisting* of a portion of the cranium with the anterior 
part of the jaws, has been obtained from the Rolling 
Downs Formation (Lower Cretaceous) near Hughen- 
den, Queensland. 

Cretaceous Fishes, New Zealand. — 

The Cretaceous beds of New Zealand are grouped 
in ascending order as the Waipara Greensands, the 
Amuri Limestone and the Weka Pass Stone. In the 
Waipara beds occur the teeth of Notidanus margina- 


A— Notidanus marginalis, Davis. Cainozoic. New Zealand 

B — Callorhynchus hectori, Newton. Cainozoic. New Zealand 

C— Oxyrhina hastalis, Ag. Cainozoic. Victoria 

D — Iyamna apiculata, Ag. Cainozoic. Victoria 

H — Carcharodon auriculatus, Blainv. sp. Cainozoic. Victoria 

F — Sargus laticonus, Davis. Cainozoic. New Zealand 

FISHES. 269 

lis (Fig. 130 A), and X. dentatus. In the Amuri 
Limestone N. dentatus is again found, as well as the 
genus Lamna, represented by L. compressa, Ag. 
(originally described as L. marginalise Davis), L. car- 
inata and L. hectori. Two forms of "Elephant fish ,? 
are represented by their dental plates, namely Cal- 
lorhynchus hectori (Fig. 130 B) and Ischyodus thur- 
manni, Pictet and Campiche (recorded as I. brevi- 
rostris, Ag.). 

Cainozoic Fishes. — 

Fish remains principally consisting of teeth, are 
common fossils in the Cainozoic beds of southern Aus- 
tralia, particularly in Victoria, and also in New Zea- 
Balcombian Series, Southern Australia. — 

The Balcombian beds as seen at Mornington and in 
the Lower Beds at Muddy Creek, Hamilton, contain 
the teeth of sharks as Odontaspis contortidens, Lamna 
crassidens, L. apiculata, Oxyrhina hastalis (rarely), 
0. minuta, Car char odon megalodon, and C. robust us. 

Janjukian. — 

The Janjukian Series (Miocene), represented at 
Torquay, Waurn Ponds and Table Cape, contains an 
abundant fish fauna, including amongst sharks, Ces- 
tracion cainozoicus, Aster acanthus eocaenicus, Galeo- 
cerdo davisi, Carcharoides totuserratus, Odontaspis 
contortidens, 0. incurva, 0. cuspidata, Lamna crassi- 
dens, L. apiculata (Fig. 130 D), L. compressa, L. 
bronni, Oxyrhina hastalis (occasional) (Fig. 130 C), 
0. desori, 0. retroflexa, 0. minuta, Car char odon 
auriculatus (Fig. 130 E), C. megalodon and C. 
robustus. A species of chimaeroid or Elephant fish 



is represented by a left mandibular tooth named 
Ischyodus mortoni, from the Table Cape Beds, Tas- 

The Corio Bay series contains teeth of Acanthias 
geelongensis, Spkyrna prisca, Odontaspis contorti- 
dens, 0. attenuata, Oxyrhina minuta, Carcharodon 
rnegalodon, amongst sharks ; whilst the spine of a Por- 
cupine Fish, Diodon connewarrensis has been ob- 
tained from the clays of Lake Connewarre, Victoria. 

Kalimnan. — 

The Kalimnan Series is also prolific in the re- 
mains of fishes, the principal localities being Beau- 
maris and Grange Burn, Hamilton. Amongst the 
sharks there found are, Notidanus jenningsi (related 


A— Carcbaroides tenuidens, Chapm. Cainozoic (Janj.) Victoria 
B — Odontaspis contortidens, Agassiz. Cainozoic (Kal ) Victoria 
C — Galeocerdo latidens, Agassiz. Cainozoic (Kal.) Victoria 
D — Myliobatis morrabbinensis, Chapm. and Pritch. Cainozoic (Kal.) 

K — Iyabrodon confertidens. Chapm. and Pritch. Cainozoic (Kal.) Vict. 
F — Diodon formosus, Chapm and Pritch. Cainozoic (Kal ) Vict. 

FISHES. 271 

to the Indian Grey Shark), Cestracion cainozoicus 
(related to the Port Jackson Shark), Asteracanthus 
eocaenicus, Galeocerdo davisi, G. latidens (Fig. 131 C), 
G. aduncus, Odontaspis contortidens (Fig. 131 B), 
0. incurva, 0. cuspidata, 0. attenuata, Lamna 
apiculata, L. compressa, Oxyrhina hast alls (abun- 
dant), 0. desori, O. retro flexa, 0. eocaena, 0. minuta, 
Carcharodon auricidatus and C. megalodon. An ex- 
tinct species of Sting Ray, Myliobatis moorabbinen- 
sis (Fig. 131 D), is found at Beaumaris, represented 
by occasional palatal teeth. Mandibular and palatine 
teeth of an extinct genus of Elephant Fish, Edapho- 
don (E. sweeti) are occasionally found at Beaumaris, 
and at Grange Burn near Hamilton. Two extinct 
forms of the Wrasse family, the Labridae, are found 
in Victoria; the pharyngeals of Labrodon conferti- 
dens (Fig. 131E) , occurring at Grange Burn, Hamil- 
ton, and those of L. depresses, at Beaumaris. The 
palatal jaws of a Porcupine Fish, Diodon formosus 
(Fig. 131 F), are frequently met with at the base of 
the Kalimnan Series, both at Grange Burn and Beau- 

Oamani Series, New Zealand. — 

In New Zealand the Oamaru Series, which is com- 
parable in age with the Victorian Janjukian, contains 
numerous fish remains, chiefly teeth of sharks. These 
are: Notidanus primigenius, N. marginalis (also 
occurring in the Waipara Series), Galeocerdo davisi, 
Odontaspis incurva, 0. cuspidata, 0. attenuata, Lam- 
na apiculata, L. compressa, Oxyrhina retroflexa, Car- 
charodon auricidatus, C. megalodon and C. robustus. 
The teeth of a Sting Ray, Myliobatis plicatilis 


and of a species of Sea-bream, Sargus laticonus, also 
occur in this series (Fig. 130 F). 

Pleistocene. — 

A species of fish belonging to the family of the 
Perches, Ctenolates avus, has been described from 
freshwater carbonaceous shale of Pleistocene age 
from Nimbin on the Richmond River, New South 

Amphibians: Their Structure. — 

AMPHIBIANS. — This group includes amongst liv- 
ing forms the Frogs, Toads, Newts, and Salamanders. 
The remains of amphibia are rare in Australasian 
rocks, and practically limited to the group of the 
Triassic Labyrinthodonts. The Amphibia are distin- 
guished from Reptiles by certain changes which their 
young undergo after leaving the egg. In this inter- 
mediate stage they breathe by external gills, these 
being sometimes retained together with the internal 
lungs in the adult stage. In the older forms of this 
group the vertebra is of the nature of a notochord, 
the joints consisting of a thin bony ring with a gela- 
tinous interior. The Labyrinthodontia have a long, 
lizard-like body, short pectoral limbs as compared 
with the pelvic, and five-toed feet. The skull is com- 
pletely roofed over. The teeth are pointed, with a 
large pulp cavity and wall of infolded or plicated 
dentine (hence the name labyrinthodont — maze-, 
cooth). The vertebrae are hollow on both sides, some- 
times imperfectly ossified, and with a notochordal 
canal. Ventral aspect with bony thoracic plates. 
Cranial bones deeply sculptured, and carrying mucus 



Carbopermian Labyrinthodonts. — 

The genus Bothriceps, probably an Archego- 
saurian, is represented by two species, B. australis 
and B. major from New South Wales (Fig. 132). 
The latter species occurs in the Oil Shale (Carboper- 
mian) of Airly. 

Tig. 1 32— Bothriccps major, A. S. Woodward. 

Carbopermian. New South Wales. About 1/llth. nat. size 

{After A. S. Woodward) . 

Triassic Labyrinthodonts. — 

Prom the Hawkesbury Series near Gosford, New 
South Wales, the labyrinthodont, Platyceps wilkin- 
soni has been described. The skeleton is nearly com- 
plete and exposed on the ventral face; the head is 


27mm. long and 32mm. broad. This specimen is 
associated with the remains of ganoid fishes, as 
Palaeoniscus and Cleithrolepis, together with the 
equisetum-like plant Phyllotheca. 

Other, somewhat doubtful remains having similar 
affinities to the labyrinthodonts are also recorded 
from the Wianamatta beds (Upper Trias) at Bowral, 
New South "Wales, consisting of a maxilla with teeth 
and 11 vertebrae with ribs of the left side. Eemains 
of a labyrinthodont, Biloela, supposed to be related 
to MastodonsauruSy have been recorded from the 
Hawkesbury Series of Cockatoo Island, Port Jackson, 
New South Wales, by W. J. Stephens, and consisting 
of a pectoral plate compared by that author with M. 
robustus (now transferred to the genus Capitosau- 

The only other recorded remains of this group in 
Australasia are those noted by W. J. Stephens from 
the Kaihiku Series (Trias) at Nugget Point, Otago; 
and in the Otapiri Series (Upper Trias) of the Wai- 
roa district, New Zealand. 

Reptilia: Their Structure. — 

REPTILIA. — The Reptiles are cold-blooded, ver- 
tebrated animals, with a scaly skin or armour. Their 
respiration is essentially by means of lungs, and they 
are terrestrial or aquatic in habit. The skeleton is 
completely ossified (bony). Reptiles, although re- 
sembling amphibians externally, are more differenti- 
ated in structure and of generally larger proportions. 
They exhibit great diversity of form, especially as 
regards their extremities. They were even adapted 


for flying, as in the Pterosaurs ("Flying Dragons") 
with their membranous wing attached to the anterior 
limb. The Deinosaurs ("Terrible Reptiles") were 
often of great size, exceeding the dimensions of any 
land mammals, and their limbs were adapted for 
walking. The marine reptiles, as the Ichthyosauria 
("Fish-lizards") and Sauropterygia ("lizard- 
finned") had the limbs transformed into paddles. 
The neural spines in the vertebra of the Turtles are 
laterally expanded into a carapace and united with 
dermal plates. The vertebrae of Reptilia show great 
variation of form, being biplanate (amphiplatyan), 
biconcave (amphicoelus), hollow in front (procoe- 
lus), or hollow at the back (opisthocoelus). In the 
case of Reptiles having both pairs of limbs developed, 
the cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal regions may 
be separately distinguished. Amongst the Ophidia 
(Snakes), Pythonomorpha ("Sea-lizards") and Ich- 
thyosaurs ("Fish-lizards") there is no differentiated 
sacral region. The skull of the Reptiles is nearer 
that of Birds than Amphibians. The basiocciput 
(basal bone of the skull at the back) articulates with 
the atlas (top joint of the backbone) by means of a 
single condyle (protuberance). All reptiles, with 
the exception of the Chelonians (Turtles), and a few 
others, are furnished with teeth: these are formed 
chiefly of dentine with a layer of enamel. 

Dentition. — 

Some teeth have solid crowns (pleodont) ; some grow 
from persistent pulps (coelodont) ; socketed teeth 
(thecodont) are inserted in alveoli; some are fused 
with the supporting bone along the outer rim or top 


(acrodont) ; whilst others are developed laterally 
along the flange-like inner rim of the jaw (pleuro- 
dont ) . 

Permian and Triassic Reptiles. — 

The history of Reptilia commences in Permian 
and Triassic times, when they were notably repre- 
sented by the Theromorphs, Pareiasaarus and Trity- 
lodon in South Africa; the Proterosauria of the 
European and American Permian and Trias, repre- 
sented by the lizard-like Palaeohatteria and the dor- 
sally frilled Dimetrodon, with its formidable array 
of neural spines; also the Rhynchosauria, with their 
beak-like jaw T s of the same formations. These two 
groups constitute the order Rhynchocephalia, which 
is represented at the present day by the Tuatera of 
New Zealand. 

Triassic Reptile, New Zealand. — 

The earliest Australian reptilian record is 
that of a vertebra of Ichthyosaurus from the 
Kaihiku Series of Mount Potts, New Zealand (Trias- 
sic). This specimen was named I. australis by Hec- 
tor, but since that species name was preoccupied by 
McCoy in 1867 it is suggested here that the New Zea- 
land species should be distinguished as I. hectori. 
The New Zealand occurrence of Ichthyosaurus makes 
the geological history of the genus very ancient in 
this part of the world. 

Jurassic Reptiles. — 

At Cape Paterson, Victoria, in the Jurassic coal- 
bearing sandstone an extremely interesting discovery 
was made a few years ago, of the ungual bone (claw) 



of a carnivorous Deinosaur, probably related to Mega- 
losaurus of the European Jurassic and Cretaceous 
beds (See Fig. 126, 3, 3 A). The presence of an ani- 
mal like this in Australia points to the former exis- 
tence of a concomitant terrestrial animal fauna, upon 
which the deinosaur must have preyed. 

Lower Cretaceous Reptiles. — 

The Rolling Downs formation (Lower Cretaceous) 
of the Thompson and Flinders Rivers in Queensland 
has yielded remains of a Tortoise. NotocJielone cos- 
tata (see antea, Fig. 17) ; and the interesting Fish- 
lizard Ichthyosaurus. Numerous and well preserved 
remains of I. austrdlis, McCoy come from the Flin- 
ders River (Fig. 133) ; whilst I. marathonensis is re- 
corded from Marathon Station t Queensland. The 
former species is typically represented by a nearly 
complete skeleton, and was considered by McCoy to 

fig. 1 33— Ichthyosaurus australis, McCoy. 

A-Part of head, showing eye protected by sclerotic plates 
B-Left pectoral paddle. L. Cretaceous. Flinders River, Queens- 
land. Vs nat. size 

{Nat. Mus. Coll,) 



be one of the largest examples of the genus, since a 
perfect specimen would probably reach the length 
of 25 feet. Its teeth resemble those of I. campy- 
lodon, Carter, from the English Chalk. Of the 
Sauropterygia two species of Pliosaurus (P. macro- 
spondylus and P. sutherlandi) have been described 
from the Lower Cretaceous of the Flinders River; 
whilst the latter species has also occurred at Pitchery 
Creek, Central Queensland and at Marathon. P. 
macrospondyhts is distinguished from P. sutherlandi 
by the roughened edges of the vertebral centra. 
Another genus of the "lizard-finned" reptiles 


A— Taniwhasaurus oweni, Hector. (I^ower jaw). Cretaceous. 

New Zealand 
B — Cimoliosaurus leucoscopelus, Eth. fil. (Teeth). Up. Crttaceous. 

New South Wales , ,' 

C— Cimoliosaurus leucoscopelus. Eth. fil. (Phalangeal). Up. 

Cretaceous. New South Wales 
D— Miolania oweni, A. S. Woodw. Pleistocene. Queensland 


(Sauropterygia), viz., Cimoliosaurus, occurs in the 
Upper Cretaceous of White Cliffs, New South Wales 
(Pig. 134 B,C.) 

Cretaceous Reptiles, New Zealand. — 

The Waipara Series (Cretaceous) of New Zealand 
contains a fairly large number of reptilian species 
belonging to several genera among which may be 
mentioned Plesiosaurus, Polycotylns, and Cimolio- 
saurus among the Sauropterygia; and Tylosaurus 
and Taniwhasaurus (Pig. 134 A), marine lizard-like 
reptiles, belonging to the sub-order Pythonomopha. 

Cainozoic and Pleistocene Reptiles. — 

The later Cainozoic deposits of Queensland con- 
tain remains of Crocodiles referred to Pallymnar- 
chus pollens (from Mary vale Creek) and Crocodilus 
porosus (from Chinchilla and Areola, near Brisbane, 
Queensland). The former species has also occurred 
at Clunes, whilst Crocodilus porosus is recorded from 
the Loddon Valley, both in Victoria. Another late 
Tertiary reptile is the remarkable Horned Turtle, 
Miolania oweni, which is found in Queensland in 
Pleistocene deposits (Pig. 134 D), and in the Plio- 
cene (Deep Leads) of Gulgong, New South Wales; 
whilst a second species of the same genus, M. platy- 
cepSy is found in coral sand at Lord Howe Island, 
400 miles distant from Australia. This genus has a 
skull with large bony protuberances, giving it a 
horned appearance, and the tail is encased in a bony 
siie&th. A species of Miolania is also described from 
Patagonia. The Cave deposits of Wellington Valley, 
New South Wales, as well as the fluviatile deposits 


of Queensland, have, yielded the bones of several 
genera of lizards, including the Giant Lizard (Mega- 
lania), which, in its length of 20 feet exceeded that 
of most living crocodiles. 

Birds. — 

BIRDS {AYES). — These warm-blooded animals 
are closely related to Reptiles in many essential parti- 
culars; and are generally considered to more nearly 
approach the Deinosaurs than any other group. The 
Ratitae ("Raft-breasted" or keel-less birds) and 
Carinatae (with keeled breast-bones), a sub-class 
including most modern birds, were probably differen- 
tiated before the Cainozoic period. 

Jurassic Bird. — 

The oldest recorded bird, the remarkable 
Archaeopteryx, of the Upper Jurassic of Bavaria in 
Europe, belonging to the Saururae (Reptilian- 
tailed) is, so far, restricted to the beds of that age. 

Miocene Bird, New Zealand. — 

The earliest known birds in Australasia occur in 
the Miocene rocks (Oamaru Series), of New Zealand. 
In this series, in the Marawhenua Greensands, a 
Giant Penguin, Palaee udyptes antarcticus is found at 
Kakanui near Oamaru, at Curiosity Shop 
near Christchurch and at Brighton near Nel- 
son, New Zealand: this interesting occurrence 
shows that these restricted antarctic birds had 
already become an established type as early as 
the Miocene. 7 



Victorian Cainozoic Bird. — 

The impression of a bird's feather, probably of 
a Wader, has lately been described from Western 
Victoria (see antea Fig. 16 and Fig. 135). This 
occurs in ironstone, on the surface of which are also 
impressions of Gum {Eucalyptus) and Native Honey- 
suckle (Banksia) leaves, of species closely related to 
those now growing in the same locality. This iron- 
stone is probably of Janjukian age, and may there- 
fore be coincident with the New Zealand occurrence 
of the Palaeeudyptes in the Oamaru Series. 
Pliocene Moa, New Zealand. — 

In the Wanganui System (Pliocene) the Putiki 
Beds have yielded bones of a small Moa (Dinornis), 
probably the oldest example of the group of great 
flightless birds which later predominated in New Zea- 
land. J.; 

fig. 135— Impression of Bird's Feather in Ironstone. 

Wannon River, Victoria, (Enlarged). 


Pleistocene Struthious Birds, Australia. — 

Bones of a struthious or Ostrich-like bird, described 
by Owen under the name of Dromornis aastralis, a 
bird as large as the Moa, have been recorded from the 
Pleistocene of Peak Downs and the Paroo Kiver, 
Queensland. Indeterminate species of the same 
genera occur in Phillip Co., New South Wales, and 
the Mount Gambier Caves, South Australia; whilst 
Dromaeus patricius is known from King's Creek, 
Darling Downs, Queensland. 

Genyornis newtorii is an extinct bird allied to the 
Emeus; it has been found in Pleistocene deposits at 
Lake Callabonna, South Australia, and other frag- 
mentary remains have been identified by Dr. Stirling 
and Mr. Zietz from Mount Gambier and Queensland. 
Regarding the build and habits of Genyornis, those 
authors remark that "Its legs combine a huge femur 
nearly as massive, in all but length, as that of Dinor- 
nis maximus, and a tibia equalling that of 
Pachyomis elephant opus with the relatively slender 
metatarse of Dinornis novae-zealandiae (ingens) and 
toes which are insignificant beside those of any of the 
larger moas." . . . "In height it may be con- 
fidently stated to have been from 6 feet to 6 feet 6 
inches, that is if the neck should have been of propor- 
tions similar to those of Pachyomis elephant opus." 
Those authors also attribute a slow, sluggish habit to 
the bird, and suggest that herbage rather than roots 
formed its food. It is very probable that the foot- 
prints of birds found in the older dune rock of Warr- 
nambool, Victoria, associated with the doubtful 
"human footprints" may have been made by Genyor- 
nis or a related form. 

BIRDS. 283 

An extinct Emu, Dromaeus minor, has lately been 
described from the sub-recent deposits in King Island, 
Bass Strait. 

Pleistocene Carinate Birds, Australia. — 

Many genera of carinate birds belonging to living 
Australian types have been identified by De Vis from 
the fluviatile deposits on the Darling Downs, Queens- 
land. These include Falcons (Taphaetus and 
Necrastur) ; a Pelican (Pelicanus) ; an Ibis (Palaeo- 
pelargus) ; a Spoonbill (Platalea) ; Ducks (Anas, 
Dendrocygna, Biziura and Nyroca) ; a Darter 
(Plotus) ; a Pigeon (Lithophaps) ; a Ground-pigeon 
(Progura) ; a Mound-builder (Chosornis) ; a Rail 
(Porphyrio) ; Moor-hens (Gallinula, Tribonyx and 
Fulica) ; and a Stork (Xenorhynchus). 

Pleistocene and Holocene Birds, New Zealand. — 

In New Zealand numerous remains of birds are 
found, chiefly in the Pleistocene strata, associated 
with Moa bones: such are Cnemiornis, the Flightless 
Pigeon Goose (Fig. 135); Harpagomis, a predatory 
hawk-like bird larger than any existing eagle; and 
Aptornis, an extinct Rail. The sand-dunes, peat 
bogs, swamps, river alluvium, caves and rock 
shelters of New Zealand often contain numerous 
remains of the gigantic Moa birds included in the 
genera Dinornis, Pachyornis and Anornalopteryx, of 
which perhaps the best known are D. giganteus, D. 
maximus (Fig. 136), D. robustus, P. elephantopns 
(Fig. 137), and A. antiqua. Some of the species 
have become so recently extinct that remains of their 
skin and feathers have been preserved in fissures in 





the rocks where they were shielded from the influence 
of air and moisture. The remains of Moa birds are 
very abundant in some of the localities as at Hamil- 
ton in Southland, where, as Hutton estimated, the 
remains of at least 400 birds were contained within 
a radius of 25 feet. 

Fig. 1 38— Pachyornis elephantopus, Owen sp. 

Pleistocene. New Zealand. About l/26th. nat. size. 

(After Owen). 

Mammalia: Early Types. — 

MAMMALIA.— The history of those warm-blooded 
animals, the mammals, commences in the early part 
of the Mesozoic period. It was then that the skull be- 
gan to assume the characters seen in the modern quad- 


rupeds, and their well-formed limb-bones, and fusion 
of the three bones on each side of the pelvic arch to 
form the innominate bone, also show relationship to 
the later types. The earliest ancestral mammalian 
forms seem to be related to the theromorphic reptiles, 
predominant in the Permian and Trias. The 
mammals first to make their appearance were pro- 
bably related to those of the Monotreme and Mar- 
supial orders. More nearly related to the former is 
the group of mammals of the Mesozoic period, the 

Multituberculata. — 

This group comprises the Triassic Tritylodon 
(South Africa and Germany) ; the Upper Jurassic 
Bolodon (England and United States) ; the Upper 
Jurassic to Lower Cainozoic Plagiaulax (England, 
United States and France) ; and the Lower Eocene 
Poly mas to don (New Mexico). The molar teeth are 
ridged longitudinally, and carry numerous tubercles, 
hence the name of the group, and resemble the 
deciduous teeth of the Duck-billed Platypus (Orni- 
thorhynchus) . 

Monotremata. — 

The Monotremata are represented at the present 
day in Australia and New Guinea by the Echidna or 
Spiny Anteater, and by the Ornithorhynchus or 
Duck-billed Platypus of Eastern Australia and Tas- 
mania. These egg-laying mammals show relation- 
ship towards the reptiles both in structure and in 
methods of reproduction. 

A Pliocene species of Ornithorhynchus (0. maxi- 
miis) has been recorded from the Deep-leads of Gul- 


gong, New South Wales, and the same beds have 
yielded the remains of Echidna (Proechidna) 
robusta. Remains of another species, Echidna, 
(P.) oweni, have been described from the Pleisto- 
cene Cave-breccias of the Wellington Valley Caves, 
New South Wales; and Ornithorhynchus agilis is 
found in deposits of similar age in Queensland. 

Marsupials. — 

The Marsupials or pouched mammals belong to the 
sub- class Metatheria. They are divided into Dipro- 
todontia and Polyprotodontia, accordingly as they 
possess a single pair of incisor teeth in the lower 
jaw, or many front teeth, hence the names of the two 
sub-orders. A later classification of the Marsupials 
is that of their division into syndactyla and dia- 

The diadactyla have the second and third toes 
separate, and are represented by the family 
Dasyuridae or Native Cats. These are polyproto- 
dont. They are the most archaic of the marsupial 
group. Remains of Dasyurus, both of extinct and 
still living species are found in Pleistocene Cave- 
breccias in Victoria and New South Wales. The 
Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus ur sinus) (Fig. 138, 
139) and the Tasmanian Wolf {Thylacinus cynoceph- 
alus), still living in Tasmania, have left numerous 
remains on the mainland, in Victoria and New South 
Wales. Of the latter genus an extinct species is T. 
major from the Pleistocene of Queensland (Fig. 140). 



Fig. 139 
Skeleton of Sarcophilus ursinus, Harris sp. 

(Tasmanian devil). 

(F. J. Moore, prep.) 

The syndactyla have the second and third toes; 
enclosed in a common skin. The Peramelidae and the 
Notoryctidae are polyprotodont. The remainder are 

Tig. 140 
Skull of Sarcophilus ursinus, Harris sp. (Tasmanian devil). 

Pleistocene. Queenscliff, Victoria. About V 2 nat. size 

{After McCoy). 



Tig. 141 — Thylacinus major, Owen. 

Hind part of mandible, outer side. Pleistocene. Queensland. 
Y 2 nat. size 

all diprotodont. The Peramelidae or Bandicoot 

family are represented in Pleistocene Cave-breccias 

in New South Wales by the genera Peragale and 


Pleistocene Diprotodonts. — 

Pleistocene remains of the diprotodont forms of this 
syndactylous group are Phascolomys (the Wombat), 
perhaps ranging as low as Upper Pliocene (P. plio- 
cenus) (Fig. 141) ; Phascolonus (P. gigas) (Fig. 
142 A) 1 , a large Wombat from Queensland and New 
South Wales and South Australia; the Giant Kan- 
garoos, as Macropus titan (Queensland, New South 

1. — This genus was described by Owen in 1872 as a sub- 
genus of Phascolomys founded on some cheek-teeth; and sub- 
sequently, in 1884, the same author described some incisors 
under the name of Sceparnodon ram say i, which are now known 
to belong to the same animal that bore the cheek-teeth. 


Pig. 142— Mandible of Phascolomys pliocenus, McCoy 

(?) Upper Pliocene (''Gold Cement.') Dunolly, Vict. 
About V 2 nat. size. {After McCoy). 

AVales, Victoria and South Australia), Procoptodon 
goliah (Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria), 
Sthenarus atlas (New South Wales, Queensland, 
Victoria and South Australia), Palorchestes azael 
(Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland) ; also 
the great Diprotodon, the largest known marsupial, 
as large as, and rather taller than, a rhinoceros, 



A— Phascolonus gigas, Owen. (Molar). Pleistocene. Queensland 
B-Parasqualodon wilkinsoni, McCoy. (Molar). Cainozoic (Janj.) Vict. 
C—Parasqualodon wilkinsoni, McCoy. (Incisor). Cainozoic (Janj.) Vict. 
D— Metasqualodon harwoodi, Sanger sp. (Molar). Cainozoic (janj.) 

South Austral : a 
E— Kekenodon onamata, Hector. (Molar). Cainozoic (Oamarnian). 

New Zealand 
F— Cetotolithes nelsoni, McCoy. (Tympanic bone). Cainozoic (Janj.) 



Fig. 1 44— Diprotodon australis, Owen. 

South Australia. {After Stirling and Zeitz). 



Fig. 145— Upper Surface of the Right Hind Foot of 
Diprotodon australis. 

A— With the Astragalus (ankle-bone) in position. 
B — „ ,, ,, ,, removed. 

Cir. Y& nat. size. 

fig. 146 — Diprotodon australis, Owen. (Restored). 

From a sketch by C. H. Angas. 



found in almost every part of Australia, with an 
allied form referred to Nototherium occurring also 
in Tasmania (Figs. 143, 144, 145). Nototherium 
(Queensland, South Australia and Victoria), was 
a smaller animal than Diprotodon, with a shorter 
and broader skull and similar dentition. Remains of 
the extinct "Marsupial Lion," Thylacoleo carnifex, 
an animal allied to the phalangers, have been found 
in Cave-deposits in New South Wales, Queensland, 
Victoria and Western Australia. Incised bones of 
other animals, which are believed to have been 
gnawed by Thylacoleo, have been found associated 
with its remains. Thylacoleo possessed a peculiar den- 
tition, the first pair of incisors in the upper jaw being 

Pig. 147— Thylacoleo carnifex, Owen. 

Right lateral aspect of skull and mandible. 

Pleistocene. Australia. l/5th nat. size. 

c, canine, i, incisors, m, molars, p m, premolars. 



very large and trenchant, whilst the canine and two 
anterior premolars are small and f unctionless : the 
lower jaw has also a pair of large first incisors, behind 
which are two small premolars, and an enormous 
chisel-edged last premolar biting against a similar 
tooth in the upper jaw (Fig. 146). 

Fig. 148— Wynyardia bassiana, Spencer. 

Upper Cainozoic (Turritella bed). Table Cape, Tasmania. 
2/7th nai. size. (Casts in Nat. Mtis. Coll.) 

Oldest Known Marsupial. 

The oldest marsupial found in Australia is pro- 
bably Wynyardia bassiana (Fig. 147), whose remains 
occurred in the Turrit ella-bed at Table Cape, which 
is either of Miocene or Lower Pliocene age. This 
stratum occurs above the well-known Crassatellites- 
bed (Miocene) of that locality. So far as can be 
gathered from its incomplete dentition, Wynyardia 
represents an annectant form between the Diproto- 
donts and the Polyprotodonts. 


Pleistocene Genera, also Living. — 

Besides the genera above enumerated, many other 
marsupials of well-known living species are re- 
presented by fossil remains in Cave-deposits and on 
"sand-blows" in most of the Australian States. The 
genera thus represented in the Pleistocene deposits of 
Australia are Bettongia (Prehensile Rat-Kangaroo) ; 
Dasyurus (Native Cat) ; Hypsiprymnus (Rat-Kan- 
garoo) ; Macropus (Kangaroo) ; Perameles (Bandi- 
coot) ; Petaurus (Flying Phalanger) ; Phalanger 
(Cuscus) ; Phascolomys (Wombat) ; Sarcophilus 
(Tasmanian Devil) ; Thylacinus (Tasmanian Wolf). 

Cetacea. — 

The order Cetacea includes Whales, Dolphins and 
Porpoises. The earliest known forms belong to the 
sub-order Archaeoceti, and whilst absent from Aus- 
tralian deposits, are found in the Eocene of Europe, 
Northern Africa and North America. 

Odontoceti: Toothed Whales. — 

Remains of Cetacea are first met with in Aus- 
tralian rocks in the Oligocene (Balcombian) of Vic- 
toria. At Muddy Creek near Hamilton fragments 
of ribs and other bones of cetacea, not yet deter- 
mined, occur in the tenacious blue clays of the lower 
part of the Clifton Bank section. In Australia and 
New Zealand the oldest determinable remains of this 
order belong to the Odontoceti, members of which 
range from Miocene to Pliocene. Teeth of the 
toothed whales like Squalodon of the Miocene of 
France and Bavaria have been found in New Zealand 
(Kekenodon) ; in South Australia (Metasqualodon) ; 
and in Victoria (Parasqualodon) . In Victoria the 


teeth of Squalodontidae occur in the Janjukian beds 
of Cape Otway, Waurn Ponds and Torquay, repre 
sented by molars and anterior teeth of Parasqualodon 
wilkinsoni (Fig. 142 B, C). The same species also 
occurs at Table Cape, Tasmania, in beds of similar 
age. Teeth of Metasqualodon harwoodi (Fig. 
142 D ) occasionally occur in the white polyzoal rock 
of the Mount Gambier district, South Australia. 
The gigantic toothed whale, Kekenodon onamata 
(Fig. 142 E) occurs in the Marawhenua Greensands 
(Oamaru Series) at Waitaki Valley, Waihao, 
Ngapara, Waikouaiti and Milburn in New Zealand. 
The molar teeth of this striking species, with their 
serrated crowns, measure nearly five inches in length. 

Ear-bones of Whales. — 

The tympanic bones of whales are not uncommon 
in the Janjukian beds of Waurn Ponds, near 
Geelong, Victoria ; and they are occasionally found in 
the basement bed of the Kalimnan at Beaumaris, Port 
Phillip. In the absence of any distinctive generic 
characters they have been referred to the quasi-genus 
Cetotolithes (Fig. 142 F). McCoy has expressed 
the opinion that they may perhaps be referable to 
the ziphioid or beaked whales, for undoubted re- 
mains of that group, as teeth of Ziphius geelong ensis, 
occur in these same beds ; as well as portions of their 
rostrate crania, in the Kalimnan basement beds at 
Grange Burn, near Hamilton. The large curved 
and flattened teeth of Ziphius (Dolichodon) gee- 
long ensis are occasionally found, more, or less frag- 
mentary, in the polyzoal rock of Waurn Ponds. 



Kalimnan-Scaldicetus. — 

From the Kalimnan Series (Lower Pliocene) of 
Beaumaris, Port Phillip, there was described a short 
time since, a remarkably well preserved specimen of 
Scaldicetus tooth belonging to a new form, S. macgeei 
(Fig. 148). Another species of the genus, with teeth 
of a slender form, has been found in the same geolo- 
gical series, at Grange Burn, near Hamilton. In only 
one other locality besides Australia does the genus 







^iSSIii : '^%l 







§ -■ * 




V i 



: ^J 

Fig. 149. — Tooth of Scaldicetus macgeei, Chapm. 

An Extinct Sperm Whale. 

From the Kalimnan beds of Beaumaris, Port Phillip, Victoria. 

About Va, nat. size. 


occur, viz., at Antwerp, Belgium, in Crag deposits of 
Lower Pliocene age. 

Sirenia. — 

The order Sirenia (Manatees and Dugongs) is re- 
presented in the Australian Pleistocene by 
Chronozoon australe. The remains consist of the 
parietal and upper part of the occipital bones of the 
skull, and were discovered in the fluviatile deposits 
on the Darling Downs, Queensland. This fossil 
skull, according to De Vis, had a shallower temporal 
fossa and feebler masticating muscles, as well as a 
less highly developed brain than the existing Dugong. 

Carnivora. — 

The order Carnivora is represented in Australia by 
the Native Dog or Dingo (Canis dingo). It is by 
no means a settled question whether the Dingo can 
boast of very great antiquity. The evidence of 
its remains having been found under volcanic tuff 
beds in Victoria is not very convincing, for the- 
original record does not indicate the precise position 
where the bones were found. The fact of the 
remains of the Dingo having been found in Cave 
deposits often associated with extinct marsupials, 
goes a good w r ay to prove its antiquity. McCoy was 
strongly inclined to the view of its Pleistocene age, 
and points out that it shows cranial characters inter- 
mediate between the Dogs of South America and the 
Old World. Fossil remains of the Dingo, associated 
with Pleistocene mammalian forms have been 
recorded from the Wellington Valley Caves, New 
South Wales ; from the Mount Macedon Cave, near 


Gisborne ; and in the neighbourhood of Warrnambool. 
AVestern Victoria. 

Pinnipedia. — 

Of the fin-footed Carnivores or Seals and Wal- 
ruses^ the earliest Australasian record is that of the 
remains of a small seal in the Okehu shell-beds near 
Wanganui, found in association with the bones of a 
small Moa-bird (Dinornis). 

Newer Pliocene Seal. — 

This seal was referred by Hector to Arctocephalus 
cinereus, a species synonymous, however, with the 
widely distributed living Seal, Otaria forsteri. Lesson, 
of the Southern Ocean. Another and larger species 
of eared seal allied to the living Fur Seal, Otaria 
forsteri, occurs in Victoria. 

Pleistocene Seal. — 

This fossil was named Arctocephalus ivilliarnsi by 
McCoy, and was found in Pleistocene deposits at 
Queenscliff, Port Phillip, at 5 feet below the surface, 
in marl and sand stone overlain with limestone. 
Although referred at the time of description to the 
Pliocene, it has since been proved that at this locality 
there is a considerable thickness of practically sub- 
recent material which is more accurately classed with 
the Pleistocene. Similar remains of eared seals are 
not uncommon in the Pleistocene deposits of the 
Otway Coast. 

Subrecent Human Remains. 

On turning to the occurrence of " human fossils" 
in Australia we find the geological evidence for any 
great antiquity of man on this continent to be very 


scanty and inconclusive. This does not, however, 
imply that man's existence in Australia will not 
eventually be proved to date back far beyond the 
period of the "kitchen middens" of modern 
aspect, such as are now exposed on the slopes 
behind the sea-beaches, and on the inland 
camping grounds. Almost all the records of 
Australian human remains that have been 
found in other than ordinary burial places, have 
proved to be of comparatively recent date. For 
example, the partially lime-encrusted body found in 
the cave in the Mosquito Plains, north of Penola, 
South Australia-, recorded by Tenison Woods, is that 
of an aborigine who, in the early days of settlement, 
crawled into the cave in a wounded condition. Other 
occurrences of human remains in caves, but of fairly 
recent date are, a child's skull found in a small cave 
at Bungonia, Co. Argyle, New South Wales, recorded 
by Etheridge ; and the non-petrified limb-bones found 
in a cave at Wellington, New South Wales, recorded 
by Kreftt, which were probably washed in from the 
surface in recent times. As regards the former, in 
Western Australia, as observed by Froggatt, the 
natives at the present time seek shelter in caves, 
where these occur, instead of building mia-mias. 

A more interesting, because probably much older, 
occurrence of human remains has been described by 
Etheridge and Trickett from one of the Jenolan 
Caves (Skeleton Cave) ; and those authors conclude 
from "The great lapse of time that must have 
accrued to enable the changes already outlined to 
have taken place since the introduction of the 



remains into the Skeleton Cave," that these remains 
are ancient. 

Curious footprints supposed to resemble impres- 
sions of human feet with accompanying impress as 
if made by natives seated, have been long known 
from the older sand-dune rock of Warrnambool. 
They were found at Kellas' Quarry, on the Port 
Fairy Road in 1890 and at a depth of 54 feet. In 
November, 1912, a further discovery of similar foot- 

fi w,^z M M§Wn^ 

Fig. 1 50— Impressions of Foot-prints in dune sand-rock. 

Warrnambool, Victoria. 1/9 nat. size. 

(7^. C. Photo) . ( H 'arrnambool Museum) . 


prints were found at Messrs. Steere Bros.' Quarry, 
Warrnambool, at a depth of 10 feet, as a block of 
stone was being removed for building purposes. 

These footprints are even more obscure than those 
previously found, and it would be unsafe to affirm 
their human origin, although they are suggestive of 
such. Their antiquity is certainly great, since the 
lavas and tuffs of the Tower Hill district are found 
overlying this old dune-rock. Other footprints asso- 
ciated with these resemble those of the Dingo and a 
gigantic bird, possibly like Genyornis. 

Probable Origin of Aborigines. — 

Ethnology appears to throw more light upon the 
subject than does geology. Australia has in the 
past been peopled by two distinct types of man. (1), 
the ancestors of the Tasmanians, now alas, extinct, 
who according to some authorities came by way of 
Australia from Papua through the Malay Penin- 
sula, passing over to Tasmania from the main- 
land before the separation caused by the sub- 
sidence of the Bass Strait area ; and who 
were represented by a negroid or woolly- 
haired type: (2), the present aboriginals of Austra- 
lia, showing affinities with the Dravidians of South- 
ern India, a primitive race from whose original stock 
the white Caucasian races of Europe were derived. 
By intermarriage with a negroid race like the 
Melanesian, it is supposed that the black Caucasian 
gave rise to the present Australian mixed aboriginal 
type, with negroid features, but possessing the long 
black hair and keener intellect of the "melanochroi," 
as the dark Eurasian stock was termed by Huxley. 


Aboriginal Implements. — 

The stone implements fashioned by the Tasmanian 
aboriginals were roughly chipped and of primitive 
type, of such forms as used at the present day by the 
Bushmen of South Africa, and representing the eoliths 
and palaeoliths of early man in the south of England. 
The implements of the Australian aboriginals on the 
other hand include besides these both flakes and 
worked and polished tools, such as were produced by 
the Neolithic men of Europe, as contrasted with the 
typically rough palaeolithic tools of the Tasmanian, 
who never grooved his axes for hafting as did the 
Australian aboriginal. According to some authorities 
the Tasmanians represent palaeolithic or even 
eolithic man in the character of their implements; 
whilst the Australian resembles the Middle or Mous- 
terian stage of early man in certain of their ethnolo- 
gical characters and in the forms of their implements, 
although a marked exception is seen in their manu- 
facture of polished adzes, of the neolithic period and 
in the use of bone implements such as were used in 
Europe in Upper Palaeolithic times. So far no 
human remains or handiwork in the form of 
chipped implements have been found in other than 
superficial deposits, either in Tasmania or Australia. 
The incised bone-fragment found near Ballarat, in a 
bed of silt beneath a sheet of basalt which flowed 
from Mount Buninyong, is believed by some to be 
evidence of man's handiwork in the early Pleistocene, 
though by others thought to have been cut by 
the teeth of the "marsupial lion" (Thylacoleo) . 
A stone axe of basalt, grooved for the purpose of 


mounting in a handle, was found in gravel at Bal- 
larat at a depth of 22 inches from the surface. This, 
however, is no proof of man's antiquity, fo*r super- 
ficial deposits of much greater depth are easily accu- 
mulated within a short period. Another implement 
was found at Maryborough in Queensland in gravels 
at a depth of 4 feet from the surface, but not below 
the basalt of the main lead. In this case it is believed 
that the implement may have fallen into a natural 
hollow or wombat-burrow. A bone pointer, such as 
used by native medicine men, was some years ago 
found buried in the Miocene marls of Waurn Ponds 
near Geelong. Its presence in so old a rock is easily 
explained from the fact that in the aboriginal cere- 
monies the pointer was buried after the incantations. 
Seeing the difficulties in the way of discovering re- 
liable occurrences of man's handiwork in isolated 
examples amongst the older superficial deposits of 
silt and gravels, the ancient sand-dunes of Victoria, 
which date back at least to Upper Pliocene, should 
afford favourable conditions for the preservation of 
any really ancient kitchen middens, did such exist. 
Moreover, these deposits would have been less liable 
to disturbance when once they were covered, than the 
inland deposits, for the former are now consolidated 
into a tolerably hard stone. 

Antiquity of Man in Australia. — 

A strong argument in favour of a considerable 
antiquity for man in Australia is the fact that the 
dialects are many, and marriage and tribal cus- 
toms more complex and intricate than would be found 


in a comparatively recent primitive race. In any 
case, it is quite possible, if not probable, that man 
was in southern Australia before the termination of 
the last phase of volcanic activity, since the tuff beds 
of Koroit, for example, are quite modern and were 
laid down on a modern sea-beach strewn with shells 
identical in species and condition with those now 
found thrown up in the vicinity at high tide. This 
view is quite compatible with the occurrence of dingo 
remains (assuming this animal was introduced by 
man) in cave deposits in Australia, associated with 
extinct forms of marsupials. 



Thyestes magnificus, Chapman. Silurian: Victoria. 

Asterolepis australis, McCoy. Middle Devonian: Victoria. 

Ganorhynckus siissmilchi, Etheridge fil. Devonian: New 
South Wales. 

Gyracanthides murrayi, A. S. Woodward. Lower Carboni- 
ferous : VictorK. 

Acanthodes australis, A. S. Woodward. Lower Carbonifer- 
ous: Victoria. 

Ctenodus breviceps, A. S. Woodward. Lower Carboniferous: 

Strepsodus decipiens, A. S. Woodward. Lower Carbonifer- 
ous: Victoria. 

Elonichthys sweeti, A. S. Woodward. Lower Carboniferous: 

Physonemus micracinthus, Chapman. Lower Carboniferous: 

(?) Deltodus australis, Eth. fil. Carbopermian : Queensland. 


Tomotlus {?)convexus, Agassiz. Carbopermian: New South 

Edestus darisii, H. Woodward. Carbopermian: W. Australia. 
Peocilodus jonesi, Agassiz. Carbopermian: W. Australia. 
Crosfordia truncata, A. S. Woodw. Triassic: New South Wales. 
Myriolepis clarkei, Egerton. Triassic: New South Wales. 
Apateolepis australis, A. S. Woodw. Triassic: New South 

Dictyopyge robusta, A. S. Woodw. Triassic: New South 

Belonorhynchus gigas, A. S. Woodw. Triassic: New South 

Semionotus australis, A. S. WoodAV. Triassic: New South 

Pristisomus latus, A. S. Woodw. Triassic: New South 

Gleithrolepis granulatus, Egerton. Triassic: New South 

Pholidophorus greaarius, A. S. Woodw. Triassic: New South 

Pleur acanthus parvidens, A. S. Woodw. Upper Trias: New 

South Wales. 
Hagenodus laticeps, A. S. Woodw. Upper Trias: New South 

Palaeoniscus crassus, A. S. Woodw. Upper Trias: New 

South Wales. 
Elonichthys armatus, A. S. Woodw. Upper Trias: New South 

Elpisopholis dunstani, A. S. Woodw. Upper Trias: New 

South Wales. 
Pholidophorus australis, A. S. Woodw. Upper Trias: New 

South Wales. 
Psilichthys selwyni, Hall. Jurassic: Victoria. 
Leptolepis crassicauda, Hall. Jurassic: Victoria. 
Oeratodus avus, A. S. Woodw. Jurassic: Victoria. 
Coccolepis australis, A. S. Woodw. Jurassic: New South 

Aphnelepis australis, A. S. Woodw. Jurassic: New South 

Aetheolepis mirabilis, A. S. Woodw. Jurassic: New South 

Archaeomaene tenuis, A. S. Woodw. Jurassic: New South 

Leptolepis talbragarensis, A. S. Woodw. Jurassic: New South 

Larnna daviesii, Eth. fil. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland. 
Lamna appendiculatus, Agassiz. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 


Corax australis, Chapm. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland. 

Aspidorhynchus sp. Lower Cretaceous: Queensland. 

Belonostomus sweeti, Eth. fil. and A. S. Woodw. Lower Cre- 
taceous : Queensland. 

Portheus australis, A. S. Woodw. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 

Cladocyclus sweeii, A. S. Woodw. Lower Cretaceous: 

Xotidanus marginalis, Davis. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Lamna compressa, Agassiz. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Callorhynchus hectori, Newton. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Ischyodus thurmanni, Pictet and Campiche. Cretaceous: New 

Odontaspis contortidens, Agassiz. Cainozoic (Bal. and Janj.) : 

Lamna apiculata, Ag. sp. Cainozoic (Bal. and Janj.) : Vic- 
toria. Also Cainozoic (Oamaru Series) : New Zealand. 

Car char odon megalodon, Agassiz. Cainozoic (Bal. Janj. and 
Kal.) : Victoria. Also Cainozoic (Oamaru Series) : New 

Cestracion cainozoicus, Chapm. and Pritcli. Cainozoic (Janj. 
and Kal.) : Victoria. 

Aster acanthus eocaenieus, Tate sp. Cainozoic (Janj. and 
Kal.) : Victoria. 

Galeocerdo davisi, Chapm. and Pritch. Cainozoic (Janj.) : 
Victoria. Also Cretaceous (Waipara Series) and Caino- 
zoic (Oamaru Series) : New Zealand. 

Carcharoides totuserratus, Ameghino. Cainozoic (Janj.) : Vic- 

Odontaspis incurva, Davis sp. Cainozoic (Janj. and Kal.) : 
Victoria. Also Cainozoic (Oamaru Series) : New Zea- 

Occyrhina retroflexa, Agassiz. Cainozoic (Janj.): Victoria. 
Also Cainozoic (Oamaru Series) : New Zealand. 

Carcharodon auriculatus, Blainville sp. Cainozoic (Janj. 
and Kal.) : Victoria. 

Acanthias geelongensis, Chapm. and Pritch. Cainozoic 

(Janj.) : Victoria. 

Ischyodus mortoni, Chapm. and Pritch. Cainozoic (Janj.) : 

Notidanus jenningsi, Chapm. and Pritch. Cainozoic (Kal). 

Galeocerdo aduncus, Agassiz. Cainozoic (Kal.) : Victoria. 

Oooyrhina hastalis, Agassiz. Cainozoic (rare in Bale, and 
Janj., abundant in Kal.) : Victoria. 

Myliohatis moorabbinensis, Chapm. and Pritch. Cainozoic 
I' Kal.) : Victorin. 


Edaphodon sweeti, Chapm. and Priteh. Cainozoic (Kal. ): 

Labrodon confertidens, Chap, and Priteh. Cainozoic (Kal.): 

Diodon formosus, Chapm. and Priteh. Cainozoic (Kal.) : 

Kotidanus marginalis, Davis. Cretaceous (Waipara Series) ; 

and Cainozoic (Oamaru Series) : New Zealand. 
Myliobatis plicatilis, Davis. Cainozoic (Oamaru Series) : New 

Sargus laticonus, Davis. Cainozoic (Oamaru Series) : New 

Ctenolates avus, A. S. Woodw. Pleistocene: New South Wales. 
'Neoceratodus forsteri, Krefft, sp. Pleistocene: New South 



Bothriceps australis, Huxley. Carbopermian : New South 

Bothriceps major, A. S. Woodw. Carbopermian: New South 

Platyceps wilkinsoni, Stephens. Triassic: New South 



Ichthyosaurus hectori, Ch. (nom. mut.). Triassic: New Zea- 

■(f) Megalosaurus sp. Jurassic: Victoria. 

Notochelone costata, Owen sp. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 

Ichthyosaurus australis, McCoy. Lower Cretaceous: Queens- 

Ichthyosaurus marathonensis, Eth. fil. Lower Cretaceous: 

Cimoliosaurus leucoscopelus, Eth. fil. Upper Cretaceous: 

New South Wales. 

Plesiosaurus australis, Owen. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Polycotylus tenuis, Hector. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Cimoliosaurus haastii, Hector sp. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Tylosaurus haumuriensis, Hector sp. Cretaceous: New Zea- 

Taniwhasaurus oweni, Hector. Cretaceous: New Zealand. 

Pallymnarchus pollens, De Vis. Pleistocene: Queensland 
and Victoria. 


Crocodilus porosus, Schneider. Pleistocene: Queensland and 

Miolania oweni, A. S. Woodw. Pliocene (Deep-leads) : New 

South Wales. Pleistocene: Queensland 
Miolania platyceps, Owen. Pleistocene: Lord Howe Island. 
Megalania prisca, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland. 


Palaeeudyptes antarcticus, Huxley. Cainozoic (Oaniaru 
Series) : New Zealand. 

Dinornis sp. Cainozoic (Petane Series) : New Zealand. 

Pelecanus proavis, De Vis. Pleistocene: Queensland. • 

Platalea subtenuis, De Vis. Pleistocene: Queensland. 

Anas elapsa, De Vis. Pleistocene: Queensland. 

Oallinula strenuipes, De Vis. Pleistocene: Queensland. . 

Fulica prior, De Vis. Pleistocene: Queensland. 

Drornornis australis, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland , and 
New South Wales. 

Dromaeus patricius, De Vis. Pleistocene. Queensland. . 

Dromaeus minor, Spencer. Pleistocene: King Island. 

Cenyornis newtoni, Stirling and Zietz. Pleistocene: S. Aus- 

<Cnemiornis calcitrans, Owen. Pleistocene: New Zealand. 

Harpagornis moorei, von Haast. Pleistocene: New Zealand. 

Aptornis otidiformis, Owen sp. Pleistocene: New Zealand. 

Dinornis giganteus, Owen. Pleistocene and Holocene: N. Id., 
New Zealand. 

Pachyomis elephantopus, Owen sp. Pleistocene and Holocente: 
S. Id., New Zealand. 

Anomalopteryx antiqua, Hutton. Pleistocene: S. Id., New 


Ornithorhynchus maximns, Dun. Cainozoic (Kalimnan or 
L. Pliocene) : New South Wales. 

Echidna (Proechidna) robtista, Dun. Cainozoic (Kalimnan) : 
New South Wales. 

Ornithorhynchus agilis, De Vis. Pleistocene: New South 

Echidna (Proechidna) oweni, Krefft. Pleistocene: New 
South Wales. 

Wynyardia bassiana, Spencer. Cainozoic (Kalimnan) : Tas- 


Dasyurus inaculatus, Kerr sp. Pleistocene: Victoria and 
New South Wales. Living: Queensland, New South Wales, 

Victoria and Tasmania. 
Phascolomys pliocenus, McCoy. Cainozoic (Werrikooian) : 

Sarcophilus ursinus, Harris sp. Pleistocene: Victoria and 

New South Wales. Living: Tasmania. 
Thylacinus cynocephalus, Harris sp. Pleistocene: Victoria 

and New South Wales. Living: Tasmania. 
Thylacinus spelaeus, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland and 

New South Wales. 
Thylacinus major, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland. 
Peragale lagotis, Reid sp. Pleistocene: New South Wales. 

Living: S. Australia and W. Australia. 
Perameles gunni, Gray. Pleistocene: Victoria. Living: 

Queensland and Victoria. 
Phascolomys parvus, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland. 
Phascolonus gigas, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland, New 

South Wales and S. Australia. 
Macropus titan, Owen. Pleistocene. Queensland, Victoria, 

New South Wales and S. Australia. 
Macropus anak, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland, S. Australia 

and New South Wales. 
Procoptodon goliah, Owen sp. Pleistocene: Queensland, New 

South Wales and Victoria. 
Sthenurus atlas, Owen sp. Pleistocene : Queensland, New 

South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. 
Sthenurus occidental-is, Glauert. Pleistocene: W. Australia. 
Palorchestes azael, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland, New 

South Wales and Victoria. 
Diprotodon australis, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland, New 

South Wales, Victoria and S. Australia. 
W&f&therium mitchelli, Owen. Pleistocene : Queensland, S. 

Australia and Victoria. 
Thylacoleo carnifex, Owen. Pleistocene: Queensland, New 

South Wales, Victoria and W. Australia. 
Parasqualodon wilkinsoni, McCoy sp. Cainor.oic (Janjukian) 

Victoria and Tasmania. 
Metasqualodon harwoodi, Sanger sp. Cainozoic (Janjukian) 

S. Australia. 
Kekenodon onamata, Hector. Cainozoic t Oamaru Series) 

New Zealand. 
Getotolithes nelsoni, McCoy. Cainozoic (Janjukian) : Vic 

Ziphius {Dolichodon) geelongensis, McCoy. Cainozoic (Jan 

jukian) : Victoria. 
Hcaldicetus macgeei, Chapm. Cainozoic (Kalimnan) : Vic 



Ghronozoon australis, De Vis. Pleistocene: Queensland. 
Canis dingo, Blunienbach. Late Pleistocene or Holocene: 

Otaria forsteri, Lesson. Pliocene (Petane Series) : N. Id., New 

Arctocephalus tvilliamsi, McCoy. Pleistocene: Victoria. 


Silurian.— Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XVIII (N.SL), 

pt. II. 1906, pp. 93-100, pis. VII. and VIII. (Thyestes). 
Devonian.— McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. IV. 1876, pp, 19, 

20, pi. XXXV. figs. 7, 7a, 7b (Asterolepis) . Etheridge, 

R. jnr. Rec. Austr. Mus., vol. VI. pp. 129-132, pi. XXVIII. 

( Ganorhynchus ) . 
Carboniferous and Carbopermian. — Woodward, II. Geol. Mag.,, 

Dec. III. vol. III. 1886, pp. 1-7, pi. I. {Edestus.) 

Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 1892, p. 

296, pi. XXXIX. fig. 1 (Deltodus). De Koninck, L. G. 

Mem. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, Pal. No. 6, 1898, 

p. 281, pi. XXIV., fig. 11 (Tomodus). Woodward, A. S. 

Mem. Nat. Mus. Melbourne, No. 1. 1906 (Mansfield 

Triassic. — Johnston, R. M. and Morton, A. Proc. R. Soc. Tas- 
mania (1889), 1890, pp. 102-104: ibid. (1890), 1891, pp. 

152-154 (Acrolepis). Woodward, A. S. Mem. Geol. Surv. 

New South Wales, Pal. No. 4, 1890 (Gosford). Ibid. No. 

10, 1908 (St. Peters). 
Jurassic. — Woodward, A. S. Mem. Geol. Surv. New South 

Wales, Pal. No. 9, 1895. Id., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 

VII. Vol. XVIII. 1906, pp. 1-3, pi. I. (Geratodus).. 

Hall, T. S. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. vol. XII. (N.S.) pt. II. 

1900, pp. 147-151, pi. XIV. Chapman, F. Rec. Geol. 

Surv. Vict. vol. III. pt. 2, 1912, pp. 234-235, pi. XXXIX. 

( Geratodus ) . 
Cretaceous. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South 

Wales, vol. III. ser. 2, 1889, pp. 156-161, pi. IV. Idem, 

Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 1892, pp. 503-504. Davis, J. 

W. Trans. R. Dubl. Soc. vol. IV. ser. 2. 1888, pp. 1-48, 

pis. I. -VII. (Cretaceous and Cainozoic of New Zealand). 

Etheridge, R. jnr. and Woodward, A. S. Trans. R. Soc. 

Vict., vol. II. pt. II. 1892, pp. 1-7, pi. I. (Belonostomus) . 

Woodward, A. S. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. XIX. 


1894, pp. 444-447, pi. X. (Portheus and Cladocyclus) . 

Chapman, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XXI. (N.S.), pt. 

II. 1909, pp. 452, 453 (Corax) . 
Cainozoic. — McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict., Dec. II. 1875, pp. 

8-10, pi. XI. ( Car char odon) . Chapman, F. and Pritchard, 

G. B. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., vol. XVII. (N.S.), pt. I. 1904, 

pp. 267-297, pis. V.-VIII. Idem, ibid, vol. XX. (N.S.), 

pt. I. 1907, pp. 59-75, pis. V.-VIII. See also Davis, J. W. 

( Cretaceous ) . 
Pleistocene. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 

1892, p. 646 (Neoceratodus) . Woodward, A. S. Rec. 

Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. VII. pt. 2, 1902, pp. 

88-91, pi. XXIV. (Ctenolates). 


Huxley, T. H. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. XV. 1859, pp. 
647-649, pi. XXII. figs. 1, 2 (Bothriceps) . Stephens, W. 
J. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. 2. vol. I. 1886, 
pp. 931-940. Ibid., 1887, pp. 1175-1182, pi. XXII. Ibid., 
vol. II. 1887, pp. 156-158. Woodward, A. S. Rec. Geol. 
Surv. New South Wales, vol. VIII. pt. 4, 1909, pp. 317- 
319, pi. LI. (Bothriceps). 


Jurassic and Cretaceous. — Hector, J. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 

VI. 1874, pp. 333-358. 
Cretaceous. — McCoy, F. Proc. R. Soc. Vic, vol. VIII. pt. I. 

1868, p. 42 (Plesiosaurus) . Ibid., vol. IX. pt. II. 1869, 

p. 77 (Ichthyosaurus) . Owen, R. Geol. Mag., Dec. I. 

vol. VII. 1870, pp. 49-53, pi. III. (Plesiosaurus). Id., 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. XXXVIII. 1882, pp. 178-183 

("Notochelys"=-lSlotochelone) . Etheridge, R. jnr. Proc. 

Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. 2, vol. III. 1889, pp. 

405-413, pis. VII. and VIII. (Ichthyosaurus) . Id., Geol. 

and Pal Queensland, 1892, pp. 505-510. Hutton, F. W. 

Trans. N.Z. Inst. vol. XXVI. 1894, pp. 354-358, 1 pi. 

( Cimoliosaurus ) . 
Pleistocene. — Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Geol. Surv. New South 

Wales, vol. I. pt. 3, 1889, pp. 149-152 (Miolania). Id., 

Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 1892, pp. 647-653. 


Miocene. — Huxley, T. H. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc vol. XV. 
1859, pp. 670-677. Also Hector, J. Trans. N.Z. Inst, 
vol. IV. 1872, pp. 341-346, 1 pi. (Palaeeudyptes) . Chap- 
man, F. Proc R. Soc. Vict. (N.S.) pt. I. 1910. pp. 21-26, 
pis. IV. and V. 


Pleistocene and Holocene. — Von Haast, J. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 
vol. IV., 1872, pp. 192-196; and vol. VI. 1874, pp. 62-75 
(Harpagornis) . Owen, R. Memoirs on the Extinct Wing- 
less Birds of New Zealand, London, 1879, 2 vols. De 
Vis, C. W. Proc. R. Soc. Queensland, vol. VI. pt. I. 1889, 
pp. 6-8. Id., Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. 
III. ser. 2, 1888, pp. 1277-1292, pis. XXXIIL-XXXVI. 
(Carinatae). Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Geo!. Surv. New 
South Wales, vol. I. pt. 2, 1889, pp. 126-136, pis. XI- 
XIII. (Dromornis) . Id., Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 1892, 
pp. 653-663. Hutton, F. W. Trans. N.Z. Inst., xol. XXIV. 
1892, pp. 93-172 (Moas). Id., ibid., vol. XXV. 1893, 
pp. 14-16, 1 pi. (Anomalopteryx) . Id., ibid., vol. XXIX. 
1897, pp. 441-557, figs. (Moas). Id., ibid., vol. XXXVIII. 
1906, pp. 66 and 67 (Emeus crassiis) . Hamilton, A. 
Ibid, vol. XXVI. 1894, pp. 227-257 (Bibliography of 
Moas). Ibid, vol. XXX. 1898, pp. 445 and 446 (Euryap- 
terycc). Stirling, E. C. and Zietz, A. H. C. Mem. R. 
Soc. S. Austr., vol. I. pt. II. 1900, pp. 41-80, pis. XIX.- 
XXIV. (Genyornis) . Spencer, W. B. Vict. Nat. vol. 
XXIII. 1906, pp. 139 and 140; also Spencer, W. B. and 
Kershaw, J. A. Mem. Nat. Mus. Melbourne No. 3, 1910, 
pp. 5-35, pis. I.-VII. (Dromoeus minor). 


Huxley, T. H. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. XV. 1859, pp. 
676-677 (Phocaenopsis). McCoy, F. Prod. Pal. Vict.. 
Dec. I. 1874, pp. 21, 22, pis. Ill -V. (Phascolomys) . Ibid, 
Dec. II. 1875, pp. 7-8, pi. XL and Dec. VI. 1879, pp. 20 
and 21, pi. LV. (Squalodon) . Ibid, Dec. III. 1876, pp. 
7-12, pi. XXI. (Thylacoleo). Ibid, Dec IV. 1876, pp. 
7-11, pi. XXXI-XXXI1I. (Diprotodon) . Ibid. Dec. V. 
1877, pp. 7-9, pi. XLI. and XLIL (Arctocephalus) . Ibid, 
Dec VI. 1879, pp. 5-7, pi. LI. (Macropus) : pp. 9-11, pi. 
LI-LIII. (Proccptodon) : pp. 13-17, pi. LIV. (Cetoto- 
lithes) ; pp. 19 and 20, pi. LV. (Physetodon) . Ibid, Dec. 
VII. 1882 ( pp. 7-10, pi. LX. (Cards dingo) : pp. 11-13, pi. 
LXXII. and LXII. (Sarcophilus) : pp. 23-26, pi. LIX. 
(Ziphius) . Owen, R. Extinct Mammals of Australia, 
London 1877, 2 vols. Hector, J. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. 
XIII. 1881, pp. 434-436, 1 pi. (Kekenodon). Lydekker, 
R. (at. Foss. Mammalia, Brit. Mus. part V. 1887. Id., 
Handbook to the Marsupialia, and Monotremata. Allen's 
Nat. Librarv, 1894, pt. III. pp. 249-286. De Vis, C. W. 
Proc Linn. Soc New South Wales, vol. VIII. pt. 3, 1883, 
p. 395 (Sirenian). Id., ibid, vol. X. 1895, pp. 75-133, 
pis. XIV-XVIII. (Macropodidae). Id., Proc R. Soc 


Vict., vol. XII. (N.S.), pt. I, 1899, pp. 107-11 (Marsu- 
pials ) . Etheridge, K. jnr. Geol. and Pal. Queensland, 
1892, pp. 663-683 (Pleistocene Mammals). Dun, W. S, 
Rec. Geol. Surv. New South Wales, vol. III. pt. 4, 1893, 
pp. 120-124, pi. XVI. (Palorchestes). Ibid, vol. IV. pt. 
3, 1895, pp. 118-126, pis. XL and XII. ( Monotremes ) . 
Stirling, E. C. and Zietz, A. H. C. Mem. Roy. Soc. S. 
Australia, vol. I. pt. I. 1899 (Descr. of Diprotodon, 
Manus and Pes.). Spencer, W. B. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1900, 
pp. 776-794, pis. XLIX. and L. (Wynyardia) . Hall, 
T. S. Proc. R, Soc. Vict. vol. XXIII. (N.S.), pt. II. 1911, 
pp. 257-265, pi. XXXVI. (Rev. of Squalodontidae ) . 
Spencer, W. B. and Walcott, R. H. Proc. R. Soc. Vict., 
vol. XXIV. (N.S.), pt. I. 1912, pp. 92-123, pis. XXXVL- 
XXIX. (Thylacoleo) . Chapman, F. Rec. Geol. Surv. 
Vict., vol. III. pt. 2, 1912, pp. 236-238, pi. XL. (Scaldi- 
cetus). Woods, J. E. T. Geol. Observations in S. Aus- 
tralia, 1862, pp. 329 and 330 (Human Remains) : also 
Krefft, G. Australian Vertebrata, Recent and Fossil, 1867, 
p. 91; Etheridge, R. jnr. Rec. Geol. Surv. New South 
Wales, vol. III. pt. 4, 1893, pp. 128-132; Etheridge, R. 
jnr. and Trickett, O. ibid, vol. VII. pt. 4, 1904, pp. 325- 


The tools and other paraphernalia necessary for 
fossil collecting are fortunately within the reach of 
all. The principal of these is a geological ham- 
mer, preferably with a pick at one end of the head 
and the opposite end square-faced. The pick end is 
useful for digging out fossils from soft clays, or for 
extracting a block of fossils entire. The square end 
is employed for breaking up the slabs or masses con- 
taining fossils. To get good results, much will of 
course depend upon one's skill in striking the right 
face of a block. If bedding planes are present on 
the lump from which we wish to extract our fossils, 
it will be well to strike at right angles to these layers 
in order to split them asunder, thus exposing a shell- 
layer corresponding to the original surface of the 
ancient sea-bed upon which the organisms accumu- 
lated. In some cases the splitting of fossiliferous 
rocks may be best carried out with the pick end, 
provided it be not too sharply curved. The hammer 
should be faced with steel, for many fossiliferous 
rocks, especially compact limestones, are apt to se- 
verely try the temper of an ill-made tool. 



A chisel, of chilled steel, should accompany the 
hammer, since this is often of the greatest use in 
working out large fossils, more particularly those 
that are buried in a cliff or quarry face. The process 
of extracting difficult specimens should never be hur- 
ried, for one often gets surprisingly good results with 
a little extra care. 

A strong pocket knife may be used in trimming 
specimens and partially cleaning shells that can be 
safely manipulated on the spot, but the final cleaning 
should be left until the return home. The knife is 
also useful for cleaning slates and shales, since the 
chisel-edge is frequently a trifle too thick for this 
kind of work. 

For the more delicate fossils, means for careful 
packing should be provided; chip-boxes and cotton- 
wool being indispensable for the smaller specimens. 
A ready method of packing the fossils obtained from 
the friable, sandy tertiary deposits is to store them 
in tins, the contents of which can be firmly secured 
from rattling by filling up with sand. This sand, 
However, should be taken from the same bed in which 
the fossils occur, so as to get no admixture of the 
smaller shells from another formation or deposit ; 
for although we may not wish to examine the finer 
material ourselves, it will yield in many cases a rich 
harvest to our microscopical friends, such residues 
containing microzoa, as shells of foraminifera, poly- 
zoa and carapaces of the ostracoda. The residues 
referred to may be obtained from many of our marls 
and rubbly limestones by the simple process of wash- 
ing in water, and repeatedly pouring off the finest 


clayey mud, until only a sandy deposit remains, 
which can then be dried and sorted over by the aid 
of a lens or low power microscope. 

Hints on Fossil Collecting. — 

As regards the places most suitable for collecting 
fossils, the Cainozoic beds are perhaps, the most 
accessible to a beginner, especially in Victoria. For 
instance, the cliff exposures at Beaumaris, Port Phil- 
lip, will afford a plentiful supply of the little heart- 
shaped sea-urchin, Lovenia, and an occasional Tri- 
gonia and Limopsis, as well as many other fossils of 
the great group of the shell-fish or mollusca. The 
richest bed containing the sharks' teeth at the above 
locality is almost perpetually covered with a bed of 
shingle, but can be reached by digging at the cliff- 
base. Isolated specimens, however, although rather 
the worse for wear, may often be picked up amongst 
the shingle, having been washed up from the fore- 
shore by the tide. An enticing band of large bivalve 
shells (Dosinea), can be seen halfway up the cliffs, 
near the baths at this locality, but are somewhat dis- 
appointing, for when obtained they crumble to pieces 
in the hand, since their shells are composed of the 
changeable form of carbonate of lime called aragonite, 
which has decomposed in place in the bed, after the 
shells were covered up by the deposit. 

Good collections of shells of the Balcombian series 
may be easily made at Balcombe's Bay and Grice's 
Creek, Port Phillip. They can there be dug out of 
the grey-blue clay with a knife, and afterwards clean- 
ed at leisure by means of a soft tooth brush dipped 
in water. In the cement stone at the same place 


there are numerous shells of pteropods or " sea-but- 
terflies" (Vaginella) , and specimens of the stone may 
be obtained, showing myriads of the porcelain-like 
shells, and also their internal casts in the hard green- 
ish coloured matrix. 

The ferruginous or ironstone beds seen in the 
Flemington Railway cutting, Melbourne, is an old 
marine shell-bank, resting on basalt. The shells have 
all been dissolved away, and only their casts and 
moulds remain. These impressions are, however, so 
faithfully moulded that the ornamentation of each 
shell can often be reproduced on a squeeze taken 
with a piece of modelling wax or plasticine. Such 
fossil remains are easily collected by carefully break- 
ing up the blocks of ironstone with a hammer. 

Quarries in the older limestones and mudstones 
in Victoria, New South Wales and other States, are 
often good hunting grounds for fossils. The quarry 
at Cave Hill, Lily dale, for example, will be found 
very profitable, for the limestone is full of corals and 
molluscan shells ; whilst the friable or rubbly portion 
is worth breaking down for the smaller fossils. The 
bed-rock (Silurian) of Melbourne is in places very 
f ossilif erous ; the sandstones of Moonee Ponds Creek 
generally affording a fair number of brachiopods, 
and occasionally corals. The mudstones of South 
Yarra, Studley Park, Yan Yean, and other places on 
the same geological horizon, contain a rich fauna, 
to be obtained only by the assiduous collector who 
will search over and break up a large number of 
blocks. Practice in this work makes a good collector ; 
although of course one must know something about 


the objects looked for, since many apparently obscure 
fossil remains of great interest might easily be 
passed over for lack of knowledge as to what should 
be expected to occur at each particular locality. 

Many other good collecting grounds might here be 
alluded to, but we have purposely cited only a few 
near Melbourne, since a selection from other parts 
of Australasia may easily be made from the localities 
mentioned in connection with the various groups of 
fossils dealt with in the systematic portion of this 

Preservation of Fossils. — 

Many of the Cainozoic fossils from the shelly sands 
and clays are extremely delicate, owing in some cases 
to their being imperfectly preserved, seeing that they 
frequently contain in their shell-structure layers of 
the unstable form of carbonate of lime called aragon- 
ite. Fossils containing aragonite are : — Calcareous 
Sponges; Corals; Bivalved shells, except Oysters, 
Pectens, and the outer layer of Spondylus, Pinna, 
and Mytilus; Gasteropods (with a few exceptions) ; 
and Cephalopods. In some of these, however, a trans- 
formation of the aragonite into calcite enables the 
fossil to be permanently preserved. The delicate fos- 
sils referred to should be dipped in weak glue or 
gelatine and left to dry; after which their final 
cleaning can be done with the aid of a little warm 
water and a soft brush. 

Certain of the clays and mudstones, both of 
Cainozoic and Jurassic ages which show re- 
mains of plants, such as leaves and fern 
fronds, are often best treated with a thin 


surface layer of paper varnish, before they lose the 
natural moisture of the rock; for when they become 
perfectly dry the thin carbonaceous film representing 
the original leaf-substance peels off, and the fossil 
is consequently destroyed. A method of treatment 
for Cainozoic leaves, by dipping them in warm vase- 
line and brushing off the superfluous material, has 
been described by Mr. H. Deane. 

Storing Fossils for Reference. — 

Fossils specimens are generally best displayed in 
cardboard trays ; or if thin wooden paper-covered tab- 
lets are used, say of about 3-16in. thickness and cut 
to proportionate sizes, the fossils should be held in 
place by pins for easy removal, unless more than 
one example can be shown together, exhibiting all 
aspects, when they can be secured to the tablet by a 
touch of seccotine. The smaller shells may be dis- 
played in glass topped boxes, which in turn may be 
stuck down to tablets or placed in trays. 


Aboriginal implements, 303 

Aborigines, probable origin 
of, 302 

Acanthias, 270 

Acanthodes, 261 

Acanthosphaera, 103 

Acanthothyris, 166, 167 

Acentrophorus, 263 

Acrolepis, 263 

Actaeon, 197 

ActinoceraSy 205, 207 

Actinocrinus, 136 

Actinodesma, 178, 179 

Actinopteria, 178, 179 

Actinostroma, 121, 122. 

Arfeoria, 158 

Aechmina, 237 

Aeschna, 250 

Aetheolepis, 267 

Agathiceras, 207 


Agnostus, 227 

Allodesma, 176 

Ambonychia, 177 

Ammodiscus, 96, 97 

Ammonites, 204, 209, 210 


lwoe6a, 36, 95 

AMPHIBI A, structure of, 

Amphistegina, 100 

Amplexus, 117 

Ampyx, 229 

Amusium, 185 

Anas, 283 

Anchura, 197 

Ancilla, 198, 199, 202 

Ancyloceras, 209, 210 

acters 'of, 40 


Anomalina. 98. 

Anomalopteryx, 283 

Antedon, 138 

ANTHOZOA, 64, 113 

Antiquity of man in Aus- 
tralia, 304 

Aparchites, 237 

Apateolepis, 262 

Aphnelepis, 267 

Apocynophyllum, 91 

Aptornis, 283 

Aptychopsis, 246 

Arabellites, 153 

Arachnoides, 146 

Araucarioxylon, 68 

Araucarites, 89 

Area, 184, 186, 188 

Archaeocidaris, 144 

Archaeocyathina, 113 


Archaeomaene, 267 

ArchaeopteryXy 280 

Ar otocephalus, 299 

Arenicolites, 153 

Argillaceous rocks, 69 

Argilloecia, 237 

fArgiope, 166 

Argonauta, 205 

ARTHROPOD A, structure 
and subdivisions of, 38, 

Asaphus, 227, 228 

Aspidorhynchus, 267 

Astarte, 182 

Aster acanthus, 269, 271 


Asterolepis, 258 

Astralium, 198, 200. 

Astropecten, 141 

Athyris, 161, 162, 165 

Atrypa, 158, 160, 162 

Aturia, 210 




Atya, 204 

Aucella, 183 

Aulopora, 116. 

Australian fossiliferous 

strata, 45-48. 
AVES, 280 

Aviculopecten, 179, 180 
Axopora, 119 

Bactronella, 112 
Baculitea, 210 
Baiera, 89, 164 
Bairdia, 240 
Balanophyllia, 118 
Balanus, 243 
Balcombian bivalves, 186 

„ gasteropods, 199 

Bandicoot, 289, 295 
Bankivia, 201 
Banhsia, 91, 281 
Barbatia, 184, 185 
Barnacles, 240 
Barnea, 187 
Bathytoma, 201 
Bela, 201 

Belemnites, 205, 209, 210 
Bellerophon, 193, 194, 195, 

Belonorhynchus, 262 
Belonostomus, 267 
Bettongia, 295 
Beyrichia, 235, 236, 237 
Biloela, 274 
Bipora, 158 
Birds, fossil, 53, 280 
Biziura, 283 
BLASTOIDEA, distribution 

and characters of, 61, 

Blue-green Algae, 76, 82 
Bog iron-ore, 80 
Bolodon, 286 
Bombax, 91 
Bone-beds, 78 
Bone-breccias, 79 
Bothricepa, 273 
#o / ryocrinus. 1 3 6 

BRACHIOPODA, structure 

of, 57, 158 
Brachiopod limestone, 74 
Brachymetopus, 232 
Brachyphyllurn, 89 
Bracken fern, 91 
Brissopsis, 148 
Brittle stars, characters of, 

61, 141 
Bronteus, 229, 230 
Bryograptus, 124, 126, 227 
BRYOPHYTA, characters 

of, 39 
Buccinum, 191 
Buchozia, 199 
Bulimina, 97, 98 
Bulimia, 69, 191 
BwKa, 204 
Bullinella, 198, 199 
Bythocypria, 236 
Bythotrephis, 82 

Cainozoic Balanidae, 243 
„ bird, Victoria, 281 
„ bivalves, 184 
„ brachiopods, 166 
„ brittle-stars, 143 
„ chitons, 190 
„ corals, 118 
„ crabs, 247 
., echinoids, irregu- 
lar, 146 
„ echinoids, regu- 
lar, 145 
fisnes, 269 
„ Foraminifera, 99 
„ gasteropods, 198 ' 
„ gasteropods, New 

Zealand, 202 
., Holothuroidea, 

„ insects, 250 
,, Lepadidae, 243 
Ostracoda, 239 
„ and Pleistocene 

reptiles, 279 
„ ])lants, 89 

Polvzoa, 158 



Cainozoic Radiolaria, 104 

„ scaphopods, 189 
„ sponges, 110 

„ starfishes, 141 
„ strata, 45, 46 

Calcareous rocks, 72 

„ sponges, 112 
Callograplus, 122 
Gallorhynchns, 269 
Calymene, 229, 230, 231 
Calyptraea, 198, 200, 201 
Camarotoechia, 160, 161, 

Cambrian bivalves, 177 

brachiopods, 159 
crinoids, 134 
Foraminifera, 96 
gasteropods, 192 
Ostracoda, 235 
plants, 82 
Radiolaria, 102 
sponges, 107 
Cameroceras, 207 
Gampanularia, 122 
Gampophyllum, 115, 117 
Gancellaria, 198, 199, 202 
Ganis, 298 
Cannel coal, 76 
Gapitosaurus, 274 
Gapulus, 194 
Carbonaceous rocks, 76 
Carboniferous brachiopods, 
„ crinoids, 136 
„ fishes, 259 
„ Foraminifera, 96 
„ gasteropods, 196 
„ Ostracoda, 237 
„ plants, 85 
Carbopermian bivalves, 179 
„ blastoids, 139 
„ brachiopods, 163 
„ cephalopods, 207 
„ corals, 116 
„ crinoids, 137 

fishes, 261 
„ Foraminifera, 97 

Carbopermian gasteropods, 
„ labyrinthodonts, 

„ Ostracoda, 237 
„ palaeechinoicls, 144 

Phyllopoda, 233 
„ plants, 86 
„ sponges, 110 
„ starfishes, 141 
„ trilobites, 232 

Garcharodon, 269, 270, 271 

Carcharoides, 269 

Gardiola, 177, 178 

Gardita, 184, 187 

Gardium, 176, 184, 186, 187 


Garposphaera, 102 

Garpospongia, 109 

Garyocaris, 244, 246 

Gassidulus, 148 

Gatenicella, 158 

Gellaria, 158 

Gellepora, 158 

Genellipsis, 102 

Genosphaera, 102, 103 

ters of, 204 

Geratiocaris, 246 

Geratodus, 265, 267 

Geratotrochus, 118 

Gerithiopsis, 200 

Gerithium, 198, 200 

Gestracion, 261, 269, 271 


Getotolithes, 296 

Ghaenomya, 181 


Ghama, 185 

Changes of climate in the 
past, 31 



Gheirurus, 229, 231 

Ghelodes, 190 

Cherts, 71 

Ghione, 185. 187, 188 

Ghiridota, 148 



Chironomus, 250 

Chiton, 190 

Chonetes, 160, 161, 162 


Chosornis, 283 

Chronozoon, 298 

Cicada, 250 

Cidaris, 145 

Cimoliosaurus, 279 

Cinnamomum, 91 

Cinulia, 197 

CIRRI Jr EDI A, habits and 
structure of, 240 

Cladochonus, 117 

Cladophlebis, 89, 164, 182 


Classification of animals, 35 

Clathrodictyon, 121 

Clausilia, 191 

Clavigera, 165 

Clays, 69. 

Cleiothyris, 164 

Cleithrolepis, 262, 263, 274 

Climacograptus, 127 

Climatius, 258 

Clonograptus, 123, 124, 126 

Clypeaster, 146 

Cnemiornis, 283 

Coals, 76 

Coccolepis, 267 

Cocconema, 92 

Coccosteus, 259 

ters of, 37 

Coleolus, 193 

Collecting fossils, 317 

Colubraria, 199 

Columbarium, 198, 201,202 

Columbella, 198 

Conchothyra, 184 

Conocardium, 177, 178 

Conodonts, 153 

Conosmilia, 118 

Conularia, 193, 194, 196 

Oonws, 198, 199, 202, 204 

Coprosmaephyllum, 90 

Coral limestone, 73 

Corals, 64, 113 

Cora#, 267 

Corbicula, 182 
Corbula, 177, 185, 187, 188 
Cordaites, 85 
Comulites, 154 
Coscinocyathus, 113 
Coxiella, 69 

Crassatellites, 176, 184 
Crenella, 176 
Crepicephalus, 227 
Crepidula, 198 
Cretaceous ( Lower and 
Upper) cepha- 
lopods, 209 
„ cephalopods, New 

Zealand, 210 
„ Cheilostomata, 

„ crinoids, 137 
„ echinoids ( irregu- 
lar), 146 
„ ( Lower ) fishes, 

„ fishes, New Zea- 
land, 268 
„ Foraminifera, 98 

„ gasteropods, 197 
„ plants, 89 
„ Radiolaria, 103 
„ ( Lower ) reptiles, 

„ reptiles, New Zea- 
land, 279 
„ scaphopods, 189 
„ sponges, 110 
Crinoidal limestone, 74 
CRINOIDEA, occurrence 
and structure of, 61, 
Crioceras, 209 
Crista, 158 
Cristellaria, 98 
Crocodilus, 279 
Cromus, 229 

Crustacea, an archaic group, 
„ development of, 

„ fossil, 54 
Cryptodon, 186 



Cryptograptus, 127 

Crypto place, 190 
Cryptostomata, 155, 15G 
Ctenodonta, 177, 178 
Ctenodus, 261, 2G3 
Ctenolates, 272 
Ctenostreon, 182 
Cucullaea, 182, 184, 18.') 
Cultelhis, 188 
Cima, 184, 186, 187 
Cupressinoxylon, 78, 89 
Cupressus, 91 
Cuscus, 295 
Cuttle-fislies, 205 
Cyatfiocrinus, 137 
Cyatkophylln m , 113, 115, 

Cyclas, 69 
Cycloceras, 206 
Cyclolituites, 207 
Cyclometopa, 248 
Cyclonema, 194 
Cyan us, 250 
Cymbella, 92 
Cyphctspis, 229 
Cyphon, 250 
Cypraea, 191, 198, 199, 200, 

Cypiicardinia, 178 
Cyprid limestone, 75 
Cyrenopsis, 184 
Cyrtoceras, 204, 207 
Cyrtograptus, 128 
Cyrtina, 162, 164 
Cyrtolites, 193 
Oystideans, 61 
Cystiphyllum, 116 
Cythere, 239, 240 
Cytherella, 240 
fCytheridea, 238 
Cytheropteron, 239 

Dadowylon, 68 

Dalmanites, 224, 225. 229. 

Daonella, 182 
Darter, 283 

fDarwinula, 238 
Dasyurus, 287, 295 
Deep Leads, fruits of, 91 

„ insects from, 250 

Deltodus, 261 
Deltopecten, 180 
Dendrocrinus, 134, 135 
Dendrocygna, 283 
Dendrograptus, 122 
Dendrophyllia, 119 
Dennantia, 198 
Dentahum, 189 
Dentition of Reptiles, 275 
Deontopora, 120 
Desmoceras, 209 
Devonian bivalves, 178 
„ brachiopods, 161 

„ cephalopods, 207 
,, corals, 115 
„ crinoids, 136 

fishes, 258 
„ gasteropods, 195 
,, Ostracoda, 237 
„ plants, 85 

„ Radiolaria, 102 
scaphopods, 189 
,, stromatoporoids, 

„ trilobites, 231 
Diatomite, 72 
Diatoms, 92 

Dicellograptus, 126, 127 
Dichograpttis, 126 
Dicranograptus, 126, 127 
Dictyonema, and allies, 122 
Dictyopyge, 262 
Didymograptus, 124, 126 
fDidymosorus, 89 
Dielasma, 164, 165 
Dikellocephalus, 227 
Dimetrodon, 276 
Dimya, 184, 185, 186 
Dinesus, 227 
Dingo, 298, 305 
Dinomis, 281, 282, 283. 299 
Diodon, 270, 271 



Dione, 188 
Diphyphyllum, 113 
Diplograptus, 124, 126, 127, 

Diprotodon, 51, 290, 293 
Diprotodon-breccias, 203 
Dtscina, 166 
Discorbina, 98 
Dissocheilus, 199 
Dithyrocaris, 246 
Ditrupa, 154 
Ditrupa limestone, 74 
Dolichodon, 296 
Dolichometopus, 226 
Dolium, 201 
Dona^, 175, 187 
Dorset ensia, 209 
Dosinea, 185, 188 
Drillia, 198, 202 
Dromaeus, 282, 283 
Dromornis, 282 
Duck, 283 
Duncaniaster, 147 

Emu, 283 
Encrinurus, 229 
Endoceras, 205 
Endothyra, 96, 98 
Entalophora, 158 
Entomis, 238 
Ephemera, 250 
Equisetites, 40 
Errant worms, 153 
Erycina, 187 
Erymnoceras, 209 
Estheria, 233 
Eucalyptus, 90, 91, 281 
Eulima, 198 
Eunema, 193 
Eunicites, 153 
Euomphalus, 194, 195, 196 
Eupatagus, 147 
Euphemus, 196 
Eurydesma, 181 
Euthria, 198 
Eutrochus, 200 
Evolution of life-forms, 33 

Ear -bones of whales, 296 
Early observers, 24 
Eburnopsis, 199, 200 
Echidna, 286, 287 
Echinocyamus, 146 
acters of, 37, 59 
„ divisions of, 133 
Echinolampas, 147, 148 
Echinoneus, 147 
Echinus, 145 
Ecionema, 112 
Edaphodon, 271 
Edestus, 262 
Edmondia, 177, 180, 182 
Eglisia, 202 
Elephant-fish, 269, 271 
Elephant-tusk shells, 188 
Elevated sea-beds, 27 
Elonichthys, 261, 263 
Elpisopholis, 263 
$ wi a rginu la, 198 

Fagus CNotofaqus) , 91 
Falcon, 283 
Fasciolaria, 198, 199 
Favosites, 73, 114, 115, 116 
Feather-star, 138 
Fenestella, 156, 157 
Fibularia, 146 
Fishes, fossil, 53 

„ primitive tvpes, 258 
true, 258 
Fish-lizards, 275, 276, 277, 

Fissilunula, 183, 184 
Fissurellidea, 198 
Fistulipora, 155, 156 
Flabellina, 98 
Flabellum, 118, 119 
Flightless pigeon goose, 283 
Flints, 71 

Flying phalanger, 295 
Foraminifera, characters of, 
36, 95 
fossil, 65 



Foraminiferal limestone, 73 
Fossil faunas, differences in, 

Fossiliferous strata, Aus- 
tralia, 45-48 
„ strata, New Zea- 
land, 49 
Fossil, origin of name, 23 
Fossils an index to age of 
strata, 26, 32 
., nature of, 21 

,, petrifaction of, 23 
„ preservation of, 

„ structure preser- 
served in, 24 
Fossil wood, 24, QQ, 68 
Frondicularia, 97, 98 
Fruits of the deep leads, 91 
Fulica, 283 
Fusus, 198, 201 

Galeocerdo, 269, 271 
Gallinula, 283 
Gangamopteris. 86 
Ganorhynchus, 259 
Gari, 185 

ters of, 190 
Gastrioceras, 207 
Geinitzina, 98 
Genyornis, 282, 302 
Geological epochs, 45-49 
Geology, scope of, 21 
Giant kangaroo, 289 
lizard, 280 
„ penguin. 280 
Gibbula, 198 
Ginkgo, 89, 91 
Girvanella, 76, 82, 86 
Glauconite casts of fora- 

minifera, 96 
Glossograptus, 126, 127 
Glossopteris, 86 
Glycimeris, 184, 187 
Glyphioceras, 207 
Gomphonema, 93 
Gondwana-land, 87 

Goniatites, 207, 208 

Goniograptus, 124, 126 

Gosfordia, 262 

Gosseletina, 196 

Grammy sia, 177 

Granatocrinus, 139 

Graphularia, 118, 119 

Graptolites, Bendigo series, 
„ Lancefield series, 

„ nature of, 63, 123 
„ Tasmania, 128 


Gregoriura, 142 

Griffithides, 232 

Gromia, 95 

Ground pigeon, 283 

Gryphaea, 182 

Grypotherium , 5 3 

Guide fossils, 43 

acters of, 40 

Gyracanthides, 261 

Gyroceras, 207 

Gyrodoma, 194 

Halimeda limestone, 75 
Haliotis, 198, 200 
Haliserites, 83 
Hahjsites, 114 
Hamites, 210 
Hapalocrinus, 136 
Haploceras, 209 
Eaplophragmium, 97, 98 
Harpa, 198, 199, 201 
Harpactocarcinus, 248 
Harpagornis, 283 
Haiok, 1 283 
Helicocrinus, 136 
Helicotoma, 195 
Heliolites, 115, 116 
Heliopora, 115 
Heliosphaera, 103 
#eZ^, 203 
Hemiaster, 148 
Hemipatagus, 148 
Heterocrinus, 135 



Heteropora, 158 
Hexactinellid sponge, 107, 

Hinge-structure, in bivalves, 

Holaster, 147 
Homalonotus, 229, 231 
Horner a, 158 
Huenella, 159 
Human remains, subrecent, 

Eyalostelia, 108, 110 
Hybocrinus, 135 
Hydr actinia, 119, 120 
HYDROZOA, 63. 119 
Hymenocaris, 244 
Hyperammina, 97 
Hyolithes, 192, 193, 194 
Hypothyris, 164 
Hypsiprymnus, 295 

Ibis, 283 

Ichthyosaurus, 276, 277, 

Idiostroma, 121 
Idmonea, 158 
Illaenus, 229 
Indusial limestone, 75 
Inoceramus, 183, 184 
Insects, 53, 250 
Ironstone, 80 
Irregular ecliinoids, 146 
Ischnochiton, 190 
Ischyodus, 269, 270 
Isochilina, 237 
Isocrinus, 137, 138 

Janjukian bivalves, 186 
„ gasteropods, 200 

Jonesina, 237 

Jurassic bird, 280 

bivalves, 182 
brachiopods, 165 
cephalopods, 208 
fishes, 264 
Foraminifera, 98 

Jurassic gasteropods, 196 
insects, 250 
Ostracoda, 238 
Phyllopoda, 233 
plants, 89 
reptiles, 276 
scaphopods, 189. 

Kalimnan bivalves, 187 
„ gasteropods, 201 

Kangaroo, 295 

Keeneia, 196 

Eekenodon, 295, 296 

Kerosene shale, 77 

Kionoceras, 206 

Kloedenia, 237 

Labrodon, 271 

Lagena, 98 

fLagria, 250 

Lamna, 267, 269, 271 

Lamp-shells, 57, 158 

Lasioclaaia, 110 

Lasiograptus. 126, 127 

Latirus, 198. 201 

Laurus, 91 

Leaia, 233 

Leda, 182, 184, 185, 187, 

Leonardo da Ynici, 25 
Lepas, 243 
Leperditella, 234 
Leperditia, 233. 234, 235, 

237, 238 
Lepidocyclina, 99, 100 

„ limestone, 73 
Lepidodendron. 40, 85, 261 

beds, 162 
Lepralia, 157. 158 
Leptaena, 162. 164 
Leptoclinum, 257, 258 
Leptodesma, 179 ■ 
Leptodomus, 177 
Leptograptits. 124 
Leptolepis, 264, 265, 267 
Lepton, 187 
Lichas, 229 
Liclienopora , 158 



Lieberkuehnia, 95 
Lima, 184, 185, 186 
Limatula, 185 
Limestones formed by or- 
ganisms, 72 
Limnaea, 69 
Limopsis, 184, 185, 187 
Limulus, 248 

Lirigula, 160, 162, 166, 261 
Linthia, 147, 148 
Liopyrga, 201 
Liotia, 198, 200 
Lithistid sponges, 109, 110 
Lithological evidence, value 

of, 44 
Lithophaps, 288 
Lithothamnion, 75 
Lituites, 207 
Lituola, 97 
Loganograptus, 126 
Lophophyllum, 117 
Lorica, 190 

Lotorium, 198, 200, 202 
Lovenia, 147 

Lower Cambrian trilobites, 
., Cretaceous bivalves, 
„ brachiopods, 166 
,, cephalopods. 209 
„ crab, 246 
„ dragon-hy, 250 
„ fishes, 267 
„ reptiles, 277 
Mesozoic fishes, 263 
Ordovician grapto- 
lites, New Zealand, 
„ Ordovician grapto- 
lites, Victoria, 124 
Loxoconcha, 239 
Loxonema, 193, 194, 195, 

Lucina, 185, 187 
Lung-fish, 265 
Lunucammina, 98 
Lunulicardium, 178 
Lunulites, 158 
Lyriopecten, 179 

Maccoyella, 183, 184 
MacrocephaJites, 209 
Macrocheilus, 196 
Macrocypris, 236, 240 
Macropora, 158 
Macropus, 289, 295 
Macrotaeniopteris, 88 
Mactra, 177, 185, 1S8 
Madrepore limestone, 73 
Magasella, 166, 168 
Magellania, 166, 167. 168 
Magnolia, 91 
Maiden-hair tree, 89 
Mail-shells, 189 
MAMMALIA, early types, 

. 285 
Mammals, fossil, 51 
Manatees and dugongs, 298 
Marginella, 198, 199 
Marginulina, 98 
Marsupial lion, 293 
Marsupial, oldest known 

Australian, 294 
Marsupials, 287 

„ Pleistocene and 

living, 295 
Martiniopsis, 164 
Mastodonsaurus, 274 
Material for fossil collect- 
ing, 315 
Megalania, 280 
Megalosaurus, 277 
Melania, 203 
Melosira, 92 

Membranipora , 157, 158 
Meretrix, 177. 185, 187 
Mesoblastus, 139 
Mesostigmodera. 250 
Mesozoic strata, 46 
Metablastus, 139 
Metasqualoclon, 295, 296 
Micraster, 146 
Microdiscus, 227 
Mikrogromia, 95 
Millepora, 119 
Milleporids, 119 
Miliolina, 96, 100, 101 



Miocene bird, New Zealand, 


„ leaf-beds, 90 

Miolania, 279 

Mitra, 198, 199, 204 

Moa-birds, 281-285, 299 

Modiola, 183, 186 

Modiolaria, 186 

Modiolopsis, 177 

MOLLUSC A, characters of, 
38, 56, 174 

ters of, 38, 57, 154 

Monactmellid sponges, 109, 

Monogenerina, 97 

Monograptus, 124, 128 

Monostychia, 146 

Monotis, 182 


Monticulipora, 155 

Monticuliporoids, 117 

Montlivaltia, 118 

Moor-hen, 283 

Mopsea, 119 

Morio, 198, 200 

Mound-builders, ^83 

Mourlonia, 196 

Mud-fish, 265, 267 

Muds, 69 

Muds tone, 70 


Murchisonia, 194, 195, 106 

Murex, 198, 199, 200 

My odor a, 185, 187 

yiyriolepis, 262, 263 

Mytilarca, 177 

Mytilus, 182, 183, 187, 188 

Naming of animals, 34 
Nassa, 191, 198, 204 
Natica, 191, 197, 198, 200, 

Native cat, 287, 295 
dog, 298 
„ honeysuckle, 91, 92 

Nautilus, 204, 207, 209, 210 

Navicula, 92 

Nebalia, 244 

Necrastur, 283 

Neoceratodus, 267 

Newer Pliocene seal, 299 

Newtoniella, 198 

New Zealand fossil if erous 

strata, 49 
Niso, 194, 198 
Nodosaria, 98, 100 
Xonionina, 96 
Normanttes, 209 
Notasaphus, 227 
Xotidanus, 268, 269, 270, 

Notochelone, 53, 277 
NotopJiyllia, 118 
NototheiHum, 293 
Nubecularia, 97, 98 
Nucleospira, 160 
Nucula, 175. 177, 178, 183, 

184, 185 
~Nuculites, 177, 178 
Nullipore limestone, 75 
Nummuhtes, 65, 99 
Nummulitic limestone, 73 
Nyroca, 283 


Octopus, 205 

Odontaspis, 260, 270, 271 


Odontopleura, 229, 231 

Odostomia, 198, 200 

Oenonites, 153 

Olenellus, 226, 227 

OZiva, 204 

Ommatocarcinus, 247 

Omphalotrochus, 194 

Oolitic ironstone, 81 

Ophileta, 192, 193 


Orbiculoidea, 160 

Orbitoules, 99 

Ordovician bivalve, 177 
„ brachiopods, 159 
„ cephalopods, 205 



Ordovician corals, 113 
„ crinoids, 135 
„ gasteropods, 193 
Phyllocarida, 244 
Radiolaria, 102 
„ sponges, 108 
trilobites, 227 
Omithorhynchus, 286, 287 
Orthis, 159, 160, 161, 162 

„ limestone, 74 
Orthoceras, 204. 205, 206, 

207, 208 
Orthonota, 111 
Orthothetes, 162 
OSTRACODA, features of 
carapace, 234 
habits of, 234 
„ structure of, 233 

Ostrea, 182, 184, 187 
Otaria, 299 

Oxyrhina, 269, 270, 271 
Oxytelus, 250 

Pachydomus, 181 

Pachyornis, 282, 283 

Pachypora, 73, 116 

Palaeaster, 140, 141 es, 280, 2S1 

Palaeohatteri<u 276 

Palaeolycus, 250 

Palaeoneilo, 177, 178 

Palaeoniscus, 261, 263, 274 

Palaeopelargus, 283 

Palaeozoic chitons, 189 
„ Cladophora, 122 
., Cryptostomata, 

„ errant worms, 153 

„ strata, 47 
„ Trepostomata, 

Palissya, 89, 164 

Pallymnarclius, 279 

Palorchestes. 290 

Panda, 203 

Panenka, 111 

Paraeyainus, 118 

Paracyclas, 111, 179 

Paradox echinus, 145 

Paradoxorhyncha, 239 

Parasqualodon, 295, 296 

Paretasaurus, 276 

Patella, 190, 191 

Pecten, 175, 182, 183, 184, 
185, 186, 187, 188 

PELEC ¥PODx\, characters 
of, 174 
„ hinge structure 
of, 175 

Pelican, 283 

Pelicanus, 283 

Pelosina, 97 

fPeltopleurus, 262 

Pentacrinas, 137, 138 

Pentagonaster, 141 

Pentamcrus, 160, 162 

Penteune, 91 

Peragale, 289 

Perameles, 289, 295 

Perispliinctes, 209 

Permian and Triassic rep- 
tiles, 276 

Perna, 187 

Pevonella, 148 

Persoonia, 90 

Petauriis, 295 

Petraia, 113 

Phacops, 229, 230, 231 

Phalanger, 295 

Phanerotrema, 194 

Phascolomys, 289, 295 

Phascolonus, 289 

Phialocrinus , 137 

Phillipsia, 232 

Phoenicopsis, 88 

Pholas, 111 

Pholidophorus, 262, 263 

P/ios, 198 

Phragmoceras, 207 

Phryganea, 75 


ture of, 243 

Phyllocladus, 90 

Phyllograptus, 123, 126 




Phyllotheca, 274 
Physa, 191 

Physonemus, 261 

Pigeon, 283 

Pinna, 186 


Pisania, 202 

fPisocrinus, 136 

Placopsilina, 97 

Placotrochus, 118 

Placunanomia , 184, 187 

nagiarca, 184 

Plagiaulax, 286 

Planorbis, 191 

Plants, fossil, 66 

Plant series, characters of, 

Platalea, 283 

Platyceps, 273 

Platyceras, 192, 194, 195, 

Platycoila, 91 

Platycrinus, 137 

Platyschisma, 196 

Platysomus, 263 

Placoiphora, 190 

Plectroninia, 112 

Pleioclinis, 91 

Pleistocene birds, New Zea- 
land, 283 
„ bivalves, 188 
,, carinate birds, 

„ diprotodonts, 289 

fish, 272 
„ Foraminifera, 101 

„ gasteropods, 202 
„ lobster, 248 
„ plants, 91 
seal, 299 

Plerophylhim , 117 

Plesiastraea, 119 

Plesiolampas, 148 

Plesiosaurus, 279 

Pleuracanthus, 263 

Pleurodiciyum , 114 

Pleuromya, 183 

fPleurostomella. OS 

Pleurotoma, 198, 199, 202 
Pleurotomaria, 194, 196, 

197, 200, 202 
Plicatula, 186 
Pliocene moa, New Zealand, 

Pliosaurus, 278 
Plotus, 283 
Fodocarpus, 90 
Poecilodus, 262 
fPollicipes, 243 
POLYCHAETA, 152. 154 
Polycotylus, 279 
Polymastodon, 286 
Polymorphina, 98, 100 
Polypora, 157 
Polyslomella, 101 
POLYZOA, characters of, 
59, 155 

,, subdivisions of, 

Polyzoal limestone, 74 
Porcellia, 196 
Porcupine fish. 270, 271 
Porina, 158 
Porphyrio, 283 
Portheus, 268 
Poteriocrin us, 137 
Prehensile Uat-kan^aroo, 

Preservation of fossils, 319 
Primitia, 236, 237 
Pristisomus, 262 
Procoptodon, 290 
Productus, 162, 163, 164 
Proechidna, 287 
Proetus, 229, 232 
Progura, 283 
Prcsopow, 246 
Prot aster, 142 
Protocardium, 185 
Protopharetra, 113 
Protoretepora, 157 
Protospoiu;ia, 107, 108 
PROTOZOA, characters of. 

36, 65, 95 



Psammechinus, 145 

Pseudamaura, 197 

Psilichthys, 264 

ters of, 40 

characters of, 40 

Pterinea, 178, 179 

Pteris (Pteridium) , 91 

PTEROPODA, 190, 192, 
193, 194 

Pterygotus, 248, 249 

Ptilograptus, 122 

Ptychoparia, 226, 227 

Pugnellus, 184 

Pulvinulina, 98 

Purbeck marble, 74 

Purisiphonia, 110 

Purpura, 191 

RADIOLARIA, characters 
of, 36, Q6 
„ habitat of, 101 
„ structure of, 101 
„ subdivisions, 102 

Rail, 283 

Raised beaches as distinct 
from middens, 29 

Ranella, 204 

Range-in-time of fossils, 50 

Raphistoma, 193, 195 

Rat-kangaroo, 295 

Receptaculites, 109 

Regular echinoids, 144 

Reinschia, 78 

Reptiles, fossil, 53 

„ dentition of, 275 
„ structure of, 274 

Reteocrinus, 135 

Retepora, 158 

Reticularia, 164 

Retiolites, 124, 128 

Rhacopteris, 86 

Rhinopterocaris, 244, 246 

Rhipidomella, 162 

Rhizophyllum, 113 

Rhodocrinus, 135 

Rhombopora, 156 

Rhynchonella, 158, 165, 166 
Rhynchotrema, 160 
Ringicula, 202 
Risella, 191 
Rissoa, 198 
Rissoina, 197 
Rostellaria, 198 
Rotalia, 96, 101 
Rugose corals, 113 

Saccammina , ( .)6. 
Saccocaris, 244 
Sagenodus, 263 
Salterella, 192 
Sandstones, 71 
Sanidophyllum , 115 
Sarcophikis, 287, 295 
Sargus, 272 
tfcaZa, 101, 198, 199, 200, 

Scalaetrochus, 194. 
Scaldicetus, 297 
Scaphella, 202 
Scaphites, 209 
Scenella, 193 
Sceparnodon, 289 
Schizaster, 148 
Schizodus, 175 
Schizophoria, 162 
Schloenbachia, 209 
Scutellina, 146 
Sea-beds far from tiie pre- 
sent coast, 29 
Sea-bream, 272 

„ -cucumbers, 148 

„ -firs, 119, 122 

„ -mats, 154, 155 

„ -pen, 119 

„ -urchins, 59, 143 

„ characters of, 144 
Sedentary worms, 154 
Seguenzia, 199 
Selenaria, 158 
Semele, 185 
Semicassis, 198 
Seminula, 164 



Semionotus, 262, 263 


Serpula, 154 

Serpulite limestone, 74 

Sertularia, 119, 122 

Shales, 69 

Sharks, 267, 269, 270, 271 

Shell-limestone, 74 

tihumardia, 227 

tiigsbeia, 143 

Siliceous rocks, 71 

Silicified wood, 24 

Siliqaaria, 198 

Silurian bivalves, 177 

„ brachiopods, 160 
„ brittle-stars, 142 
„ cephalopods, 206 
„ cirripedes, 241 
„ conodonts, 153 
,, corals, 113 
„ crinoids, 135 
„ Foraminifera, 96 
„ gasteropods, 193 
„ graptolites, Vic- 
toria, 128 
„ Hexacoralla, 114 
„ Octocoralla, 115 
„ Ostracoda, 235 
,; palaeechinoids, 
Phyllocarida, 246 
., plants, 82 

Radiolaria, 102 
sponges, 109 
starfishes, 140 

trilobites, 228 

Kiphonalia, 198 

hiphonia, 110 

fiiphonotreta, 160 


Kistrum, 202 

Slate, 70 

Smith, William, 26 

Smittia, 158 

Solarium, 198 

SolenocurUts, 187 

SoleteUina, 18S 

Sphaerosiderite, 80 

SphenoptertSj 85, 89 

Sphenotrochus, 118, 119 

Sphenotus, 177, 179 

tiphyma, 270 

tipirifer, 160, 161, 162, 163, 

Spiriferina, 165 

,, -beds, 208 

Spirillina, 96 

Spirorbis, 154 

Spirula, 205 

Spirulirostra, 205, 210 

Spisula, 188 

Spondylostrobus, 91 

Spondylus, 175, 184, 185 

SPONGES, characteristics 
of, 64, 107 

Spongilla, 72 

Spongodiscus, 103 

Hpongophyllum, 116 

Spoonbill, 283 

Spore coal, 76 

tiqualodon, 295 

titacheia, 97 

Star-corals, 119 

Starfishes, characters of, 
61, 139 

Staurolonche, 103 

Stauroneis, 92 

Steno, 25 

Stenopora, 117 

Stenotheca, 192 

Stephanella, 109 

Stephanograptus, 126 

Stephanotrochus, 118 

Sthenurus, 290 

Sting-ray, 271 

Stomatopora, 158 

Storing fossils, 320. 

Stork, 283 

Strata, superposition of, 41 
„ vertically arrang- 
ed, 44 

Stratigraphical series, gen- 
eral thickness, 44 

Stratigraphy, 27 

Rtrepsodtis, 261 

Streptelasma, 113 



Htricklandinia, 160 
Stromatopora, 120, 121 
Stromatoporella, 121, 122 

Strombus, 184, 204 
Strophalosia, 163 
8tropheodonta, 160, 161 
Strophonella, 160 
Struthiolaria, 202 
Studeria, 148 
Sturtzura, 143 
Stutchburia, 180 
Subemarg inula, 198 
Submerged forests, 30 
Sunetta, 187 

Superposition of strata, 41 
Synaphe, 238 
Synedra, 92 
Byringopora, 114 
JSyringothyris, 164 

Tabellaria, 92 
Taeniopteris, 88, 89, 164, 

250, 265 
Taniwhasaurus, 279 
Taphaetus, 283 
Tasmanian devil, 287, 295 

wolf, 287, 295 
Tasmanite, 77 
Taxocrinus, 135 
Tellina, 185, 187, 188 
Temnechinus, 146 
Tentaculites, 193, 194, 195 
Terebra, 198, 199, 202, 204 
Terebratella, 166, 168 
. Terebratula, 166 
Terebratulina, 166, 167 
Tertiary ironstone, 81 
Tessarodoma, 158 
Tetractinellid sponge, 110, 

Tetmgraptus, 124, 126 
Textularia, 98, 100 
Thalassina, 248 

THALLOPTl Y V A, charac- 
ters of, 39 

Thalotia, 200 

Thamnastraea, 118 

Thinnfeldia, 88, 89, 182 

Thurammina, 97 

Thyestes, 258 

Thylacinus, 287, 295 

Thylacoleo, 293, 303 

Time-range of fossils, 50 

Tomodus, 262 

Toothed whales, 295 

lorbanite, 77 

Torlessia, 154 

Trachy derma, 153, 154 

Trachypora, 117 

Trematonotus, 194 

Trematotrochus, 118, 119 


Tretocalia, 112 

Triassic bivalves, 181 

brachiopods, 164 
cephalopods, 208 
crinoids, 137 
nshes, 262 
Foraminifera, 98 

Ostracoda, 238 
Phyllopoda, 233 
plants, 88 
reptiles, New Zea- 
land, 276 

Tribonyx, 283 

Tribrachiocrinus, 137 

Trichograptus, 124 

Tricoelocrinus, 139 

Trigonia, 175, 182, 183, 184, 

Trigonograptus, 126 

TRILOBITES, habits of, 
, 222 
„ structure of, 223 

Tritylodon, 276, 286 

Trttna, 198, 199 

Trochoceras, 205 

Trochonema, 195 

Trochus, 191, 194, 195 

Trophon, 202 



Truncatulina, 98, 100 
Tryplasma, 113 
Tuatera, 276 
Tudicla, 201 
Turbo, 197, 200 
Turrilepas, 241, 243 
Turrit ella, 191, 198, 200, 

201, 202 
Turrit ella -limestone, 74 
Tylosaurus, 279 
Tylospira, 198, 202 
Typhis, 198 

Uncinulus, 162 
Unio, 181, 182 
Unionella, 181 

Upper Cambrian trilobites, 
Cretaceous bivalves, 

Cretaceous brachio- 

pod, 166 
Cretaceous cephalo- 

pod, 166 
Triassic fishes, 262 
Ordovician grapto- 
lites, New South 
Wales, 127 
„ Ordovician - grapto- 
lites, Victoria, 

TJ raster ella, 140 
Urosthenes, 262 

Valvulina, 97, 98 
Venus, 177, 185, 187, 188 
VERMES, characters of, 37 
Vertebraria, 264 
VERTEBRATA, characters 

of, 38, 257 
Verticordia, 186 
Vetotuba, 194 
Voluta, 198, 201, 202 
Volutilithes, 198, 201, 202 
Vol vox, 78 
Volvulella, 201 

Warrnambool footprints, 

Werrikooian bivalves, 187 

„ gasteropods, 202 
Whales, 295 
White coal, 77 
Wilsonia, 160 
Wombat, 289, 295 
Worms, fossil, 59, 152 
Worm- tracks, 154 
Wrasse family, 271 
Wynyardia, 294 

Xenophanes, 24 
Xenorhynchus, 283 
Xestoleberis, 237 
Xiphosphaera, 103 

Yvania, 196 

Vaginella, 198, 199 
Vaginulina, 98 

Zaphrentis, 117 
Ziphius, 296 




Appended letters indicate the State or Country: — 

N.S.W., New South Wales: X.T.. Northern Territory; N.Z., 
New Zealand: Q., Queensland: S.A., South Australia: T., 
Tasmania; V., Victoria; W.A., Western Australia. 

Adelaide, S.A., 102 
Aire Coast, V., 138 
Airly, N.S.W., 273 
Alice Springs, S.A., 193 
Altona Bay. V., 112 
Areola, Q., 279 
Arcoona, S.A., 91 
Ardrossan, S.A., S2, 107 

Bacchus Marsh, V., 88, 90 
Balcombe's Bar, V., 190, 

239, 317 
Bald Hill, V., 88 
Barker Gorge, W.A., 196, 

232 259 
Barraba, N.S.W., 93, 102 
Batesford, V., 73, 100, 138, 

Baton River, N.Z., 195, 207 
Bay of Islands, N.Z., 93 
Beaumaris, V., 119, 243, 
248, 270, 271, 29G, 297, 

Bendigo, V., 108, 109, 124, 

Berwick, V., 68 
Bindi, V., 109, 121, 161, 195 
Bingera, N.S.W., 102 
Boggy Creek, V., 112 
Bowen Pviver, Q., 117, 137, 

Bowning, N.S.W., 144, 153, 

207, 231, 241 
Bowral, N.S.W., 274 
Brighton, N.Z., 146, '248, 

Broadhurst's Creek, V., 231 

Broken River. N.Z., 146, 

Broken River, (,)., 136 
Broome, W.A., 183 
IJriiDSwick, V., 136 
Buchan, V., 79, 109, 115, 

136, 161, 195, 203, 207, 

231, 237, 258 
Bulla, V., 122 
Bnno-onia, N.S.W., 300 
Burdekin, Q., 115, 116 
Burnt Creek, V., 259 
Burrogorang, N.S.W., 180 

Camperdown, V., 74 
Canobolas district, N.S.W., 

Canowindra, N.S.W., 162 
Canterbury, N.Z., 154 
Cape Liptrap, V., 71 
Cape Otway, V., 119, 296 
Cape Palliser, N.Z., 203 
Cape Paterson, V., 265, 276 
Carapook, V., 264 
Caroline Creek, T., 227 
Casterton, V., 265 
Castlemaine, V., 126, 246 
Cavan, N.S.W., 109 
Cessnock, N.S.W., 237 
Chatham Ids., 138 
Chillagoe, Q., 115 
Chinchilla, Q., 279 
Clarence Town, N.S.W., 139, 

Cliftonwood, N.S.W., 237 
Clunes, V., 279 
Cockatoo Id., N.S.W., 274 
Collie, W.A., 98 



Collingwood, V., 206 

Coole Barghurk Creek, V., 

Cooma, N.S.W., 93, 102 
Copeland, N.S.W., 85 
Corio Bay, V., 270 
Corner Creek, Q., 237 
Croydon, Q., 89, 166 
Curiosity Shop, N.Z., 138, 

Curlewis, V., 112, 247 
Curramulka, S.A., 108, 177, 

192, 235 
Currowang, N.S.W., 127 

Dalton, N.S.W., 90, 91 
Dargo Higii Plains, V., 91 
Darling Downs, Q., 53, 110, 

282, 283, 298 
Darling Kiver, N.S.W., 154, 

Darriwill, V., 126 
Delegate River, N.S.W., 114 
Derrengullen Creek, N.S.W., 

Diggers' Rest, V., 126 
Dolodrook River, V., 193, 

Dromana, V., 246 
Dundas Co., V., 264 

East Maitland, N.S.W., 154 
Elizabeth River, S.A., 91 

Fanning River, Q., 207 
Farley, KS.W., 180, 237 
Fernbrook, N.S.W., 109 
Fifield, N.S.W., 237 
Flemington, V., 136, 142, 

143, 206, 318 
Flinders, V., 65, 112 
Flinders River, Q., 183, 250, 

267, 277, 278 
Florentine Valley, T., 159, 

Fraser's Creek, V., 231 

Gascoyne River, W.A., 117, 

136, 137, 232, 262 
Geelong, V„ 100, 119, 120, 

Geilston, T., 203 
Gellibrand River, V., 199 
Geraldton, W.A., 98, 197, 

Gippsland Lakes, V., 168, 

Gisborne, V., 299 
Glenelg River, V., 168 
Glenwilham, X.S.W., 139 
Goodradigbee River, N.S. W., 

Goonoo, N.S.W., 85 
Gordon River, T., 115 
Gosford, N.S.W., 53, 262, 

263, 273 
Grampians, V., 261 
Grange Burn, Hamilton, V., 

143, 270, 271, 296, 297 
Greenough River, W.A., 165, 

182, 209 
Grey River, N.Z., 78 
Grice's Creek, V., 317 
Grose Vale, N.S.W., 238 
Gulgong, N.S.W., 279, 286 
Gunning, N.S.W., 91 

Haddon, V., 68 
Hallett's Cove, S.A., 119 
Hall's Sound, Papua, 201 
Hamilton, N.Z., 285 
Hamilton, V., 190, 243, 270, 

271, 295, 296, 297 
Hamilton River, Q., 267 
Hatton's Corner, N.S.W., 

114, *31 
Heathcote, V., 160, 177, 227 
Hobart, T., 68, 203 
Hokonui Hills, N.Z., 164, 

Hughenden, Q., 267, 268 

Iguana Creek, V., 85 
Irwin River, W.A., 97, 98, 

137, 207 
Island of Timor, 163 



Jenolan Caves, N.S.W., 102, 
121, 300 

Kakanui, N.Z., 280 
Kamileroy, Q., 267 
Keilor, V., 128 
Kent's Group, T., 203 
Kilmore, V., 144, 206, 231, 

Kilmore Creek, V., 231 
Kimberlev, W.A., 136, 137, 

192, *207, 262 
King Island, T., 53, 104, 

King's Creek, Q., 282 
Kirrak, V., 265 
Knocklofty, T., 264 
Knowsley, V., 227 
Ivoroit, V., 305 
Kowhai River, N.Z., 189 

Lake Callabonna, S.A., 51, 

Lake Connewane, V., 270 
Lake Eyre, S.A., 166, 183, 

189, 197 
Lake Frome, S.A., 91 
Lancefield, V., 93, 108, 122,- 

124, 246 
Laurie's Creek, S.A., 193, 

205, 228 
Lawson, N.S.W., 127 
Leichhardt River, Q., 267 
Leigh's Creek, S.A., 193 
Lennard River, W.A., 208 
Lilydale, V., 73, 82, 96, 114, 

121, 190, 229, 231, 236, 

243, 318 
Limeburners Point, V., 79 
Limestone Creek, Glenelg 

River, V., 202 
Limestone Creek, Yass, 

N.S.W., 136, 231 
Loddon -Valley, V., 279 
Lord Howe Id., 279 
Loyola, V., 109, 121, 229, 

Lyndhurst, N.S.W., 227 

Macmahon's Creek, V., 207 

Maddinglev, V., 90 

Mallee, V., 71, 101. 119, 138, 

Mandurama, N.S.W., 102, 

127, 227 
Manly, N.S.W., 88 
Mansfield, V., 53, 122, 154, 

231, 259 
Marathon Station, Q.. 277 
Maria Id., T., 180 
Maryborough, Q., 146, 184, 

Maryvaie Creek, Q., 279 
Melbourne, V., 82, 136, 140, 

153, 178, 246 
Mersey River, T., 77, 97, 

Milburn, N.Z., 296 
Mitchell Downs, Q., 137 
Mitta Mitta River, V., 114 
Molong, N.S.W., 114 
Moonee Ponds (reek, V., 

229, 318 
Moorabool River, V., 112, 

120, 202 
Mornington, V., 65, 70. 90, 

112, 118, 258, 269 
Mosquito Plains, S.A., 300 
Mount Angas, Q., 166 
„ Buninyong, V., 303 
„ Gambier, S.A., 71, 
91, 119, 120, 138, 
147, 282, 296 
Lambie, N.S.W., 85 
„ Macedon Cave, 298 

Potts, N.Z., 276 
„ Victoria, N.S.W., 88 
„ Wellington, V., 126, 

134, 159, 193 
„ Wyatt, Q., 109 
Muddy Creek, Hamilton, V., 
141, 147, 243, 269, 295 
Mudgee, N.S.W., 109 
Muree, Raymond Terrace, 

N.S.W., 238 
Murray River Cliffs, S.A., 
58, 210 



Murrumbidgee River, N.S.- 
W., 114, 189, 259 

Napier Range, W.A., 232 
Narrengullen Creek, N.S.- 

W., 237 
Nelson, N.Z., 78, 126, 164, 

165, 182, 233, 248 
Newcastle, N.S.W., 233 
Ngapara, N.Z., 296 
Nimbin, Richmond River, 

N.S.W., 272 
Norseman district, W.A., 

Nugget Point, Otago, N.Z., 

Nungatta, N.S.W., 85 
Nyrang Creek, N.S.W., 162 

Oakey Creek, N.S.W., 178 
Oamaru, N.Z., 110, 280 
Orakei Bay, N.Z., 158 
Otway Coast, V., 90 

Fakaraka, N.Z., 93 

Papua, 100, 146, 148, 184, 
187, 188, 201, 203, 209, 
Paroo River, Q., 282 
Peak Downs, Q., 282 
Penola, S.A., 300 
Peter maim Creek, S.A., 193 
Phillip Co., N.S.W., 282 
Pine Creek, Q., 93 
Pitfield Plains, V., 90 
Pitcherv Creek, Q., 278 
Pokolbin, N.S.W., 97, 180 
Port Campbell, V., 247 
Port Darwin, N.T., 103, 248 
Port Stephen, N.S.W., 262 
Preservation inlet, N.Z., 

Ravensneld, N.S.W., 180 
Reid Gap, Q., 207 
Richmond Downs, Q., 267 
Richmond River, N.S.W., 93 

Rock Flat Creek, N.S.W., 

Rockhampton, Q., 110, 139, 

144, 153, 164, 196, 261 
Rough Range, W.A., 116, 


Sale, V., 112 
San Remo, V., 122 
Sebastopol, V., 93 
Seville, V., 229, 231 
Shakespeare Cliff, N.Z., 

Southland, N.Z., 285 
South Yarra, V., 128, 136, 

143, 206, 229, 249, 318 
Spring Creek, Torquay, V., 

St. Peter's. Svdnev, N.S.W., 

Stanwell, Q., 137 
Stockyard Creek. , N.S.W., 

Stroud, N.S.W., 86 
Studley Park, V., 128, 318 
Sunbury, V., 126 

Table Cape, T., 74, 190, 269, 

270, 294, 296 
Talbot, V., 93 
Talbragar, 267 
Tallong, N.S.W., 127 
Tamworth, N.S.W., 85, 103, 

Taranaki, N.Z., 203 
Jempe Downs, S.A., 193, 

205, 228 
Thompson River, Q., 277 
Thomson River, V., 229 
Tinderbox Ray, T., 264 
Tingaringi, N.S.vV., 127 
r Toongabbie, V., 74, 135 
Torquav, V., 74, 141, 148, 

243, 269, 296 
Tver's River, V., 82, 144 

Upper Finke ±>asin, S.A., 



Upper Yarra, V., 206, 207, 
231, 236 

Vegetable (reek, N.S.W., 91 

Waikao, N.Z., 296 

Waikari River, X.Z., 141 
Waikouaiti, N.Z., 296 
Wairoa, N.Z., 274 
Wairoa Gorge, N.Z., 137. 

Waitaki Vallev, N.Z., 296 
Walhalla, V., 114, 121, 128 
Wandong, V., 229, 231 
Wanganui, X.Z.. 209 
Wannon River district. V., 

53, 90 
Waratah Bav, V., 114, 121, 

Warburton, V., 207 
Warrnambool, V., 282, 299, 

301, 302 
Wan in Ponds. V., 90, 119, 

141, 243, 269, 296 
Wellington Valley, X.S.W., 

287, 298, 300 
Wells Creek, X.Z., 165 

West Melbourne Swamp, V., 

Westport, X.Z., 78 
Wharekuri, X.Z., 248 
White Cliffs, X.S.W., 138, 

179, 183, 184, 195, 279 
Whittlesea, V., 206 
Wilberforce, N.Z., 189 
Wilcannia. N.S.W., 138 
Wirrialpa, S.A., 159 
Wollumbilla. Q., 98, 137. 

154, 157. 166, I S3, 189 
Wombat Creek, \ .. 109, 126 
Woori Yallock (reek, V., 

Wormbete Creek, V., 74 
Wynyard, T., 246 

Nan Yean, V., 318 

Y;iss. X.S.W., 65, 109. 114. 

121, 153, 161. 179. 190. 

207, 231, 237. 241 
Yering, V., 142 
Yorke Peninsula, S.A., 226 
lule ^d.. Papua, 146, 187. 


Zeehan, T., 154 


Page 65, for head-line "Protozoa" read "Ifoa- Fossils arc 

Page 147, for head-line "Characteristic Fossils" read "Sea- 

Page 273, for head-line "Reptiles" read "Amphibians" 

& <Q) W 7T M JS M N 

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